State Of Washington

Department of Natural Resources



















Cadastral Framework Data Model

Land Survey Definitions









AREA MEASUREMENT 13

Nominal Area Flag

BOOK VOLUME TYPE (FGDC Source Link) 14

Binding Site Plans

Condominiums

County Commissioners' Records

County Surveyor's Records

Deeds

Land Corner Records

Large Lots

Lien Records

Miscellaneous

Mortgages

Patents

Plats

Road Waivers

Short Plats

Surveys

BOUNDARY ( a portion of FGDC Record Boundary) 15

BOUNDARY BOUNDS

BOUNDARY COMMENT

BOUNDARY LEGAL STATUS

BOUNDARY OFFSET LEFT

BOUNDARY OFFSET RIGHT

BOUNDARY ESTABLISHED DATE

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT ( a portion of FGDC Record Boundary) 16

BOUNDARY LENGTH

BOUNDARY DEFINING FLAG

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DIRECTION QUADRANT 17

North Azimuth

South Azimuth

Northeast

Southeast

Southwest

Northwest

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DIRECTION TYPE 18

Geodetic

Grid

Astronomic

Magnetic North

Assumed

Astronomic (true) mean bearing

Reference Meridian of another line in a survey

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DISTANCE TYPE 20

Ground Distance

Geodetic Distance

Grid Distance

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DISTANCE UNIT OF MEASURE 21

Chains

U. S. Survey Feet

International Feet

Meters

Vara - Mexico Definition

Pole

Arpent

Stick

Vara - California Definition

Vara - Texas Definition

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT REFERENCE ANGLE (FGDC Boundary Reference) 22

Reference Angle to Radius

Reference Angle to Line

BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT REFERENCE ANGLE TYPE 23

Angle Right

Angle Left

Deflection Right

Deflection Left

BOUNDARY TYPE (FGDC Record Boundary Comment) 24

1/4 Section Line

1/16 Section Line

1/64 Section Line

1/256 Section Line

1/1024 Section Line

1 Mile City Limit Line

12 Mile Territorial Boundary

2 Mile City Limit Line

200 Mile EEZ Line

3 Mile State/Federal Line

6 Mile OCSLSA Line

Block Line

City Line

Condominium Unit Line

County Boundary Line

Donation Land Claim Line

Established Line of Navigability

Estimated Line of Navigability

Farm Unit Line

Fractional Part or Area Description Line

Government Lot Line

Government Parcel Line

Harbor Line Inner

Harbor Line Outer

Harbor Line Side

Homestead Entry Line

Indian Allotment Line

Indian Reservation Line

International Boundary Line

Irrigation Block Line

Limit of Navigability

Lot Line

Mean High Water

Mean Higher High Water

Mean Tide Level Line

Mean River Level

Mean Sea Level

Meander Line

Metes and Bounds Description Line

Military Reservation Line

Mineral Survey Line

Ordinary High Water

Ordinary Low Water

Outlot Line

PLSS Tract Line

Protracted Block Line

Right of Way Line

Section Line

Small Holding Claim Line

Small Tracts Act Line

State Boundary Line

Subdivision Boundary Line

Township Line

CIRCULAR CURVE (FGDC Circular Curve) 29

Degree of Curve

Chord Length

Tangent Length

Radius Distance

COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (FGDC Corner Point Measured Coordinate) 30

COORDINATED POINT (Supertype over FGDC Corner Point) 31

Latitude

Longitude

Vertical Coordinate

CORNER (FGDC Corner) 32

CORNER LABEL

CORNER BOUNDARY ORIENTATION 33

CORNER BOUNDARY ORIENTATION TYPE 33

Oriented by beginning at one corner and ending at another corner.

Oriented by Radius Point

Oriented by a Point on the Perimeter

CORNER CLASSIFICATION TYPE (FGDC Corner Classification) 34

1/4 Section Corner

1/16 Section Corner

1/64 Section Corner

1/256 Section Corner

1/1024 Section Corner

Angle Point

Auxiliary Meander Corner

Block Corner

Center Quarter Section Corner

Condominium Unit Corner

Crossing Closing Corner

Donation Land Claim Corner

Farm Unit Corner

Fractional Part or Area Description Corner

Government Lot Corner

Homestead Entry Survey Corner

Indian Allotment Corner

Indian Reservation Corner

International Boundary Monument

International Boundary Reference Mark

Intersection Point

Irrigation Block Corner

Location Corner

Location Monument

Lot Corner

Meander Corner

Metes and Bounds Description Corner

Mile Corner or Mile Post

Mineral Survey Corner

Military Reservation Corner

Outlot Corner

Point on Line

Reference Monument

Right of Way Corner

Small Holding Claim Corner

Small Tracts Act Corner

Section Corner

Special Meander Corner

Subdivision Boundary Corner

Township Corner

CORNER POINT (FGDC Corner Point) 39

CORNER POINT ACCEPT FLAG

CORNER POINT ACCEPT DATE

CORNER QUALIFIER TYPE (FGDC Corner Qualifier) 40

Amended

Center

Closing

East

North

Northeast

Northwest

South

Southeast

Southwest

Standard

West

Witness

CURVE (Supertype over all FGDC Curves) 43

CENTRAL ANGLE

INITIAL DIRECTION TO RADIUS

DEGREE OF CURVE TYPE 44

Chord Definition

Arc Definition

GEODETIC CONTROL POINT (not in FGDC Cadastral) 45

GEODETIC POINT NAME

GEODETIC POINT ALIAS

GEODETIC POINT PID

HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT 46

North-South Plane Coordinate

East-West Plane Coordinate

Latitude

Longitude

Horizontal Coordinate Accept Flag

HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT TYPE 47

Geographic

Plane Rectangular Cartesian

HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY LEVEL 48

1-Millimeter

2-Millimeter

5-Millimeter

1-Centimeter

2-Centimeter

5-Centimeter

1-Decimeter

2-Decimeter

5-Decimeter

1-Meter

2-Meter

5-Meter

10-Meter

20-Meter

100-Meter

>100-Meter

HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT ADJUST YEAR 49

HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT DATUM 50

NAD 83

NAD 27

LEGAL AREA DESCRIPTION (FGDC Legal Area Description) 51

LOCAL PLANE 52

MEASURED COORDINATE METHOD 53

Calculation

Computerized Map Scaling

Conventional Survey

Digitized

Geodetic GPS Survey

Inertial Survey

Mechanical Map Scaling

Photo Pinned

Phototriangulation

Resource Grade GPS

NON-PLSS CORNER (FGDC Legal Area Corner) 55

Non PLSS Corner Label

Non PLSS Corner Sequence

NON-PLSS DESCRIBED AREA (FGDC Survey System Description and subentities) 56

Non-PLSS Described Area Name

Non-PLSS Described Area Number

Non-PLSS Described Area Duplicate Status Flag

Non-PLSS Described Area Portion

NON-PLSS DESCRIBED AREA TYPE 57

Assessor Plat

Binding Site Plan

Block

Cemetery

Condominium Subdivision

Condominium Unit

Farm Unit

Fractional Part or Area Description

Homestead Entry Survey

Indian Allotment

Irrigation Block

Lode Claim

Lot

Metes And Bounds Description

Mill Site

Mineral Claim

Mineral Survey

Military Reservation

Outlot

Placer Claim

Right of Way

Short Subdivision

Small Holding Claim

Small Tracts Act

Subdivision

Survey

Townsite

PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM 61

PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM TYPE 62

State Plane

Universal Transverse Mercator

Local

PLSS ALIQUOT PART (FGDC PLSS Township Second Subdivision) 63

PLSS ALIQUOT PART TYPE 63

Northeast Quarter

Southeast Quarter

Southwest Quarter

Northwest Quarter

North Half

South Half

East Half

West Half

PLSS CORNER (FGDC Legal Area Corner) 64

PLSS CORNER LABEL

PLSS CORNER GCDB CODE

PLSS DONATION LAND CLAIM (FGDC PLSS Township First Division) 68

Donation Land Claim Number

Donation Land Claim Name

PLSS GOVERNMENT LOT (FGDC PLSS Township Second Division) 69

GOVERNMENT LOT NUMBER

PLSS GOVERNMENT LOT NOMINAL SIXTEENTH SECTION 70

NE/14 NE/14

NW1/4 NE1/4

NE1/4 NW1/4

NW1/4 NW1/4

SW1//4 NW1/4

SE1/4 NW1/4

SW1/4 NE1/4

SE1/4 NE1/4

NW1/4 SW1/4

NE1/4 SW1/4

NW1/4 SE1/4

NE1/4 SE1/4

SE1/4 SE1/4

SW1/4 SE1/4

SE1/4 SW1/4

SW1/4 SW1/4

PLSS GOVERNMENT PARCEL (FGDC PLSS Township Second Division) 71

GOVERNMENT PARCEL IDENTIFYING TEXT

GOVERNMENT PARCEL DUPLICATE STATUS FLAG

PLSS PROTRACTED BLOCK (FGDC PLSS Township First Division) 72

PROTRACTED BLOCK NUMBER

PLSS SECTION (FGDC PLSS Township First Division) 73

PLS SECTION NUMBER

PLSS SECTION SUBDIVISION (FGDC PLSS Township Second Subdivision) 74

PLSS TOWNSHIP (FGDC PLSS Township) 75

PLSS TOWNSHIP WHOLE NUMBER

PLSS TOWNSHIP FRACTION

No Fraction

1/4 Township

Township

3/4 Township

PLSS TOWNSHIP DIRECTION

North

South

PLSS RANGE WHOLE NUMBER

PLSS RANGE FRACTION

No Fraction

1/4 Range

Range

3/4 Range

PLSS RANGE DIRECTION

East

West

PLSS TOWNSHIP DUPLICATE STATUS FLAG

PLSS TOWNSHIP MERIDIAN 77

MERIDIAN TYPE

PLSS TOWNSHIP SUBDIVISION (FGDC PLSS Township First Subdivision) 79

PLSS Township Subdivision Duplicate Status Flag

PLSS TRACT (FGDC PLSS Township First Division) 80

TRACT NUMBER

SIGNIFICANT COORDINATED LOCATION 81

Significant Coordinated Location Name

Significant Coordinated Location Description

SPIRAL CURVE (FGDC Other Curve) 82

SPIRAL CURVE INITIAL DEGREE OF CURVATURE

SPIRAL CURVE FINAL DEGREE OF CURVATURE

SPIRAL CURVE CHANGE IN DEGREE OF CURVATURE

STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM NAD 27 ZONE 83

STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM NAD 83 ZONE 87

STRAIGHT LINE (FGDC Straight Line) 90

STRAIGHT LINE DIRECTION

SURVEY DOCUMENT 91

SURVEY DOCUMENT TYPE

Field notes

GLO/BLM Field Notes

GLO/BLM Plat

Index

Miscellaneous Surveyor's Records

Recovery Document

Survey Plat

SURVEY MONUMENT (subset of FGDC Corner Point) 92

MONUMENT SET DATE

MONUMENT STAMPING

MONUMENT ACCESS

MONUMENT ACCESSORIES

MONUMENT DESCRIPTION

SURVEY MONUMENT SETTING 93

SURVEY MONUMENT RECOVERY 95

RECOVERY DATE

RECOVERY CONDITION

SURVEY MONUMENT RECOVERY CONDITION 95

Good

Not Recovered, Not Found

Poor, Disturbed, Mutilated, Requires Maintenance

Destroyed

SURVEY MONUMENT TYPE 96

VERTICAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT 98

Vertical Coordinate

Vertical Coordinate Accept Flag

VERTICAL COORDINATE MEASURED ACCURACY LEVEL 99

1-Millimeter

2-Millimeter

5-Millimeter

1-Centimeter

2-Centimeter

5-Centimeter

1-Decimeter

2-Decimeter

5-Decimeter

1-Meter

2-Meter

5-Meter

10-Meter

20-Meter

50-Meter

100-Meter

>100-Meter

VERTICAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT DATUM 100

NGVD29.

NAVD88.

Tidal

Ellipsoidal

Project or Local



AREA MEASUREMENT



In general, an area is any aggregate of plane spaces to be considered in an investigation. Here, as area is considered the quantity projected on a horizontal plane or surface of a spheroid, defined by the coordinate system being used, which quantity is enclosed by the boundary of a polygonal figure.



Nominal Area Flag

If the area measurement is from the survey which created the parcel, then the Nominal Area Flag is set. A nominal area is used as an area for transactional purposes if no more recent area measurement is available.

BOOK VOLUME TYPE (FGDC Source Link)

Counties may record and/or store documents by Book or Volume and Page. The type code describes the sort of Book or Volume.



Binding Site Plans



Condominiums



County Commissioners' Records



County Surveyor's Records



Deeds



Land Corner Records



Large Lots



Lien Records



Miscellaneous



Mortgages



Patents



Plats



Road Waivers



Short Plats



Surveys







BOUNDARY ( a portion of FGDC Record Boundary)

A Boundary is the linear feature that represents the edge of an areal feature, which may be a Parcel or a legal area.

BOUNDARY BOUNDS

The text which describes a Boundary by calling for adjoiners such as, "South along the edge of the Cowlitz River" or "along the land owned by Fred Perry" or "along the easterly right of way of Cedar Street".



BOUNDARY COMMENT

Boundary Comment contains additional information about the Boundary that may be in public record, but does conform to listed attributes for Boundary.



BOUNDARY LEGAL STATUS

The Boundary Legal Status identifies the Boundary's status from a legal or court perspective. Examples of legal status comments are Disputed, Adjudicated and Agreed.



BOUNDARY OFFSET LEFT

The distance the Boundary is offset to the left of the described line or curve. This is useful for strip descriptions and rights of way.

This is a distance measure in units defined by the Distance Unit and Distance Type.



BOUNDARY OFFSET RIGHT

The distance the Boundary is offset to the right of the described line or curve. This is useful for strip descriptions and rights of way.

This is a distance measure in units defined by the Distance Unit and Distance Type.



BOUNDARY ESTABLISHED DATE

Don't know what this means. FTF



BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT ( a portion of FGDC Record Boundary)

A Boundary Measurement is measured information about the line which connects corners of a Legal Area Description. The information may be found on the document which created the Legal Area Description or may be found on a survey document. Sometimes the document is a map, such as a GLO township plat or recorded Subdivision. Sometimes the document is a deed or other conveyance, such as may be the case with a Metes and Bounds Description.



BOUNDARY LENGTH

The distance from the beginning to the end of the boundary as measured along the boundary, whether straight or curved.



BOUNDARY DEFINING FLAG

If a Boundary Measurement is part of the legal description for a parcel or if it appears on the survey which created the parcel, then the measurement can be said to define the boundary; the measurement can be called a "record" measurement. In such a case the defining flag is set. This flag is important for activities which relate to the record or official measurement of a line, such as proportioning lost corners. If a Boundary Measurement is a private surveyor's remeasurement, then the defining flag is not set.





BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DIRECTION QUADRANT

Directions can be measured as either bearings or azimuth. Bearing is an acute angle reference to either north or south. An azimuth is referenced to either north or south and is a full circle measure in the clockwise direction. Counterclockwise directions are counted as negative.



North Azimuth

North Azimuth is the horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from north.

South Azimuth

South Azimuth is the horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from south.

Northeast

Northeast is the horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from north.

Southeast

Southeast is the horizontal direction reckoned counterclockwise from south.

Southwest

Southwest is the horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from south.

Northwest

Northwest is the horizontal direction reckoned counterclockwise from north.











BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DIRECTION TYPE

This attribute is the "basis of bearing" or "basis of azimuth" for the direction. The basis of direction can be based on astronomic observations to the North or South, coordinate system grids, magnetic points or an assumed direction such as northerly along a road centerline.



Azimuths hold the zero value to be either in the north or the south direction. Bearings have a zero value either north or south and a 90 degree value either east or west.



Geodetic

Geodetic azimuth holds zero to be in the north or south direction.

Geodetic azimuth is the horizontal angle at station A measured from a north-south plane (perpendicular to the reference ellipsoid) clockwise to an ellipsoidal normal section passing through station B. Geodetic azimuth is determined by applying a correction to astronomic azimuth or by computations on the reference ellipsoid. The azimuth from A toward B is the forward azimuth while the azimuth from B toward A is the back azimuth of station B.

Geodetic bearings are the corresponding equivalent to the azimuth.



Grid

Grid azimuth holds zero to be in the north or south direction.

Grid azimuth is the angle in the plane of projection between a straight line and the central meridian (y axis) of a plane-rectangular coordinate system. Although essentially a map quantity, a grid azimuth may, by mathematical processes, be transformed into a geodetic azimuth.

Grid bearings are the corresponding equivalent to the azimuth.



Astronomic

Astronomic azimuth holds zero to be in the north or south direction.

Astronomic azimuth, at the point of observation, is the angle measured from the vertical plane through the celestial pole to the vertical plane through the observed object. Astronomic azimuth is the terrestrial azimuth which results directly from observations on a celestial body: It is measured in the plane of the horizon. It is affected by the local deflection of the vertical (station error) which, in the United States, produces differences between astronomic and geodetic azimuths of as much as 26" in the mountain regions of the Western States and 10" in the less rugged Eastern States. Astronomic azimuths are sometimes reckoned clockwise or counterclockwise through 180.

Astronomic bearings are the corresponding equivalent to the azimuth.



Magnetic North

The azimuth or bearing is based on north being in the direction, at the point of observation, of the vertical plane in which a freely suspended, symmetrically magnetized needle, influenced by no transient, artificial, magnetic disturbance, will come to rest.



Assumed

The azimuth or bearing is based on an arbitrary (assumed) direction which is called north. The relationship between the assumed north and astronomic or geodetic north might not be specified.





Astronomic (true) mean bearing

Given two points on the earth, A and B, of different longitude, the astronomic azimuth of the line from A to B will be different from the astronomic azimuth of the line from B to A. The Astronomic Mean Bearing of the line from A to B is the average of the astronomic bearing from A to B and the astronomic bearing from B to A.

An astronomic mean bearing cannot be an azimuth.

GLO and BLM survey plats have Astronomic mean bearings as the directions of the lines.



Reference Meridian of another line in a survey

The azimuth or bearing is based on an angular relationship with the azimuth or bearing of another line.





BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DISTANCE TYPE

Distance Type describes the reference surface for the distance.



Ground Distance

Ground distances are horizontal distances measured on the surface of the earth.

Geodetic Distance

Geodetic distances are those measured along the curve of the geodetic datum. For NAD 83 this is the GRS 80 ellipsoid. For NAD 27 it was sea level.

Grid Distance

Grid distances are the distances of measured lines projected to a plane coordinate datum. In the State of Washington there are two officially recognized plane coordinate systems, Washington Coordinate System North Zone and South Zone. These Grid distances are easily convertible to Ground and Geodetic distances.







BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT DISTANCE UNIT OF MEASURE

Distance Unit defines the units of measure and reference plane upon which distance measurements are taken.



Distance Units Codes



Chains

The chain is the unit of length prescribed by law for the survey of the public lands of the United States. The chain is equivalent to 66 feet or 4 rods, poles or perches and is divided into 100 links. Ten square chains equals one acre.

U. S. Survey Feet

US Survey foot = 1200/3937 meters (0.3048006096 m)

International Feet

International foot = 0.3048 m exactly, 1 meter = 3.28084 Intl. feet

Meters

The new (1952) International Standard Meter is defined as 1,650,763.73 times the wavelength of krypton light.

Vara - Mexico Definition

Many definitions are cited by the ACSM Definitions of Surveying and Associated Terms. 33.00 inches is cited as recognized by the Commissioner of the General Land Office's Report of 1854 and by a court case. Local authorities always should be consulted for the value.

Pole, Perch or Rod

The Pole, also termed "perch" and "rod", is a unit of length in land measurement, equal to 1/4 chain (25 links) or 16.5 feet.

Arpent

When Arpent is used as a linear term it refers of the length of a side of one square arpent, approximately 0.85 acres. The determination of the length of the arpent depends on whether the original grantor was of French or English descent. Examples of values used are 191.50 feet and 191.994 feet. Local authorities always should be consulted for the value.

Stick

The Stick is a measurement term used in some field notes and deeds in the early 1800's, a stick is chain or 2 poles (rods). It is the point where, in the use under Tiffin's 1816 instructions of "a two poles chain of 50 links," a chain man called out "stick" to be replied with "stuck."

Vara - California Definition

Varies from 32.953 inches to 33.372 inches in various records and reports. Local authorities always should be consulted for the value.

Vara - Texas Definition

33.3333 inches as established by Texas law in 1919. (36 varas = 100 feet)



BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT REFERENCE ANGLE (FGDC Boundary Reference)



The direction of a Boundary may be defined by an angular relationship with another boundary direction. The Boundary Measurement Reference Angle is the angle relating the Boundary direction to another Boundary direction. The Reference Angle is the angle where the two related Boundaries meet at the Corner the two Boundaries have in common. The pivot point for the Reference Angle is the common Corner. The Reference Angle relates the preceding Boundary, the one which is "used by the angle", to the following Boundary, the one for which the "angle is needed".



Reference Angle to Radius

This is the angle between the preceding Boundary Measurement and the direction to the radius point of a circular curve.



Reference Angle to Line

This is the angle between the preceding Boundary Measurement and the direction of a following straight line Boundary Measurement.









BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT REFERENCE ANGLE TYPE

There are four ways to relate the direction of one Boundary to the direction of another by an angular relationship. The Boundary Measurement Reference Angle Type codes those methods.



Angle Right

A horizontal angle measured to the right, clockwise, from the reverse direction of the preceding line to the forward direction of the following line.

Angle Left

A horizontal angle measured to the left, counter-clockwise, from the reverse direction of the preceding line to the forward direction of the following line.

Deflection Right

A horizontal angle measured to the right, clockwise, from the prolongation of the preceding line to the following line.

Deflection Left

A horizontal angle measured to the left, counter-clockwise, from the prolongation of the preceding line to the following line.





BOUNDARY TYPE (FGDC Record Boundary Comment)



1/4, 1/16, 1/64, 1/256, 1/1024 Section Lines, Aliquot Part Line

A line bordering an aliquot part which is a legal subdivision of Sections, except a fractional lot, or bordering further subdivision of any smaller legal subdivision, except a fractional lot, by division into halves or quarters ad infinitum.



1 Mile City Limit Line



12 Mile Territorial Boundary



2 Mile City Limit Line



200 Mile EEZ Line



3 Mile State/Federal Line



6 Mile OCSLSA Line



Block Line

A line bordering a block which is the platted portion of a subdivision surrounded by streets and avenues and plat boundaries. A block is usually subdivided into lots. Examples of subdivisions are Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites.



City Line



Condominium Unit Line

A line bordering a condominium unit which is that part of a Condominium Plat designated as an independent use unit to be set aside for the exclusive use a particular party.



County Boundary Line

A line that is part of the boundary of a county, which is the primary administrative subdivision of a State of the United States.



Donation Land Claim Line

A line at the extremity of a boundary of lands granted under the Oregon Donation Act of 1850. The intent of this act was to grant and survey land claims based on settlements made prior to public lands being thrown open to general entry.



Established Line of Navigability



Estimated Line of Navigability



Farm Unit Line

A line bordering a Farm Unit which is the basic subdivision of an Irrigation Block created by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as the major subdivision of Irrigation Projects. The purpose was to create parcels for sale in the areas of eastern Washington developed for farming by the Irrigation Projects.



Fractional Part or Area Description Line

A line bordering a parcel of land described as being a portion of another parcel. The portion can be specified by a fraction, length or area. Examples are the South half of Parcel A, the south 200 feet of Parcel A, and the South 5 acres of Parcel A.



Government Lot Line

A line bordering a Lot subdivision of a section which is not described as an aliquot part of the section, but which is designated by number, e.g., LOT 2. A lot may be regular or irregular in shape and its acreage varies from that of regular subdivisions. The term "Government Lot" is commonly used by persons outside the Bureau of Land Management in referring to such a subdivision of a section.



Government Parcel Line

A line bordering a Government Parcel which is created when the BLM subdivides acquired land. A Government Parcel is a federal unit of section subdivision as described in the BLM Manual of Surveying Instructions.



Harbor Line Inner



Harbor Line Outer



Harbor Line Side



Homestead Entry Line

A line bordering lands surveyed under the Agricultural Homestead Entry Act of 1906. This act segregated areas of agricultural value lying within National Forest Reserves.



Indian Allotment Line

A line bordering an Indian Allotment which is an allocation of a parcel of public lands or Indian Reservation lands to a Native American for his or her individual use. Indian Allotments are identified by either a name or a number.



Indian Reservation Line

A line bordering an Indian Reservation, which consists of lands reserved for the use of Native Americans.



International Boundary Line

A line on the boundary of a state recognized by the United Nations as an independent territory united under a single government.



Irrigation Block Line

A line bordering an Irrigation Block created by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as the major subdivision of Irrigation Projects. The purpose was to create parcels for sale in the areas of eastern Washington developed for farming by the Irrigation Projects.



Limit of Navigability



Lot Line

A line bordering a Lot as defined in one of two manners.

(1) A plot of land, not surrounded by streets, which is the principle and only subdividing unit of a subdivision. Examples of subdivisions are Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites. An example would be the lots of a short plat containing no blocks and consisting of only 4 subdivisional parcels or lots. Cemetery Lots, though sometimes called Plots, should be classified as Lots.

(2) One of several other contiguous parcels of land making up a Block.



Mean High Water



Mean Higher High Water



Mean Tide Level Line



Mean River Level



Mean Sea Level



Meander Line.

In GLO or BLM surveys the meander line is the traverse run at the line of mean highwater of a permanent natural body of water. In original surveys, meander lines are not run as boundary lines. They are run to generally define the sinuosities of the bank or shore line and for determining the quantity of land in the fractional sections remaining after segregation of the water area.



Metes and Bounds Description Line

A line bordering on a parcel of land described by citing the measure of length (metes) of the boundary lines (bounds). In general, the "metes" and "bounds" can be recited by reference to record, natural or artificial monuments at the corners and by reference to record, natural or cultural boundary lines. In modern usage, a metes and bounds description includes the bearings and distances of each course.



Military Reservation Line

A line bordering on Federal Lands which have been dedicated for military purposes.



Mineral Survey Line

A line bordering on a Mineral Survey which is a survey of one or more lode claims, placer claims, or mill sites with all their notes and plats. This type of survey is executed by a U.S. Mineral Surveyor for the purposes of marking the legal boundaries of mining claims on the public domain. Mineral Surveys are identified by number. Mineral surveys may be subdivided into lodes, placers or millsites.



Ordinary High Water



Ordinary Low Water



Outlot Line

A line bordering on an area of land on a plat which is to be used for a purpose other than a building site. A green belt is classified as an Outlot.



PLSS Tract Line

A line bordering a PLSS Tract which is a federal unit of a township subdivision as described in the BLM Manual of Surveying Instructions.

"Special surveys may involve areas of land that are not aliquot parts of sections but are designated as lots or tracts. In common usage the term "tract" is applied to an expanse of land of no particular size, often irregular in form. In modern public land surveys the term is used specifically to mean a parcel of land that lies in more than one section or that cannot be identified in whole as a part of a particular section. It is properly described by tract number and township. Tracts within a township are numbered beginning with 37 or the next highest unused numerical designation to avoid confusion with section numbers." (BLM 7-5)



Protracted Block Line

A line bordering a Protracted Block which is a designation for sections of uncertain acreage which lie between the coordinate based interior and the prior surveyed boundaries of record which generally form the exterior perimeters of the protracted areas. (BLM IM 93-353, 9/30/93). Protracted Blocks are created when BLM Protraction Diagrams abut previously surveyed Townships. A Protraction Diagram is prepared for the purpose of describing unsurveyed land areas. The diagram is approved for the Director by the Chief, Division of Cadastral Survey, and filed in the respective state offices of the BLM after public notice in the Federal Register.



Right of Way Line

A line bordering a Right of Way which is any strip or area of land, including surface, overhead, or underground, granted by deed or easement, for construction and maintenance according to designated use, such as for drainage and irrigation canals and ditches; electric power, telegraph, and telephone lines; gas, oil, water, and other pipe lines; highways, and other roadways, including right of portage; sewers; flowage or impoundment of surface water; and tunnels.



Section Line

A line bordering a Section which is the unit of subdivision of a township with boundaries conforming to the rectangular system of surveys, nominally one mile square, containing 640 acres.



Small Holding Claim Line

A line bordering a Small Holding Claim which is an entry in which the entryman and his or her predecessors of interest maintained continuous, adverse, actual, bona fide possession of public lands for at least 20 years prior to BLM Cadastral Survey of the lands involved and is covered by Acts of March 3, 1891 and June 15, 1922 as amended. Small Holding Claims are identified by number.



Small Tracts Act Line

A line bordering a Small Tracts Act Survey which is a parcel of land surveyed under the authority of the Small Tracts Act, Public Law 97-465, January 12, 1983. It applies to parcels within the National Forest System which may be sold, exchanged, or interchanged. The acreage of the parcels may be: (1) 40 acres or less when interspersed with adjacent lands not in federal ownership, (2) 10 acres or less when encroached upon by color of title improvements, or (3) Rights of way, reserved or acquired, which are no longer needed by the federal government and are surrounded by lands not owned by the federal government.



State Boundary Line

A line which is part of the boundary of a State which is one of the primary divisions of the United States.



Subdivision Boundary Line

An external boundary line of any tract of land divided into lots for purposes of sale. A subdivision in this sense includes Assessor's Plats, Binding Site Plans, Cemeteries, Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites.



Township Line

An external boundary line of a Public Land Survey System Township which refers to a unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side, usually containing 36 sections, some of which are designed to correct for the convergence of meridians or range lines, with boundaries conforming to meridians and parallels within established limits.







CIRCULAR CURVE (FGDC Circular Curve)

A curve of constant radius. All the points on the curve are equal distance from the center of the circle.



Degree of Curve

The degree of curve defines the radius of a highway or railroad circular curve. There are two definitions: 1) (chord) The angle subtended at the center of a circle by a chord of 100 feet. 2) (arc) The angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc of 100 feet. Definition 1) was used in railroad and early highway design. Definition 2) is used in present day engineering of highway design.



Chord Length

The length of the straight line connecting the endpoints of the Circular Curve.



Tangent Length

A tangent is a line that touches a given curve at one and only one point and does not intersect it. The P.I. of a circular curve is the point of intersection of the tangent to the curve at the beginning of the curve with the tangent to the curve at the end of the curve. The tangent length is the straight line distance from the beginning of the curve to the P.I. of the curve.



Radius Distance

The radius is the distance from the center of the circular curve to any point on the curve.



COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (FGDC Corner Point Measured Coordinate)

A Coordinate Measurement is a measurement of the linear or angular quantities, or both, which designate the position of a point in relation to a given reference frame. There are two general divisions of coordinates used in surveying, polar coordinates and rectangular coordinates. These can each be subdivided into three classes, plane coordinates, spherical coordinates, and space coordinates.



Polar Plane Coordinates are azimuth and distance from a given reference point on a plane. They are not used much in the surveying other than as an observation used as a first step in deriving coordinates in another system.



Polar Spherical Coordinates are Latitude and Longitude.



Polar Space Coordinates are Latitude, Longitude and Elevation.



Rectangular Plane Coordinates are perpendicular distances of a point from a pair of axes which intersect at right angles, reckoned in the plane defined by those axes. State Plane Coordinates are an example.



Rectangular Spherical Coordinates probably is a self contradictory term.



Rectangular Space Coordinates are the perpendicular distances of a point from planes defined by each pair of a set of three axes which are mutually perpendicular to each other at a common point of origin. An example is the Earth Centered Cartesian (ECEF) coordinate system used in GPS surveying.



COORDINATED POINT (Supertype over FGDC Corner Point)



A position with a known coordinate. A Coordinated Point may be a Corner Point or a Geodetic Control Point. If geodetic quality coordinates are known or established for a Corner Point, the Point is still a Corner Point. A Geodetic Control Point is established for no other purpose than geodetic control.



Latitude

The angle which the normal at the Coordinated Point, projected to the ellipsoid, makes with the plane of the geodetic equator. Positive Latitudes will be understood to be the angle measured north from the equator. The ellipsoid used shall be the Geodetic Reference System of 1980 (GRS 80). The datum for coordinates shall be the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83).



Longitude

The angle at the Coordinated Point between the plane of the geodetic meridian passing through the Point and the plane of the Meridian of Greenwich. Positive Longitudes will be understood to be the angle measured west from Greenwich. The ellipsoid for determining Longitude shall be the Geodetic Reference System of 1980 (GRS 80). The datum for coordinates shall be the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83).



Vertical Coordinate

The vertical distance from a datum to the Point. A vertical datum is any level surface (as for example, mean sea level) taken as a surface of reference from which to reckon elevations. The datum shall be the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The unit shall be the meter.



CORNER (FGDC Corner)

The primary definition of Corner is a legal location. It marks an extremity of a boundary of a subdivision of land. It may mark the extremity of Parcel or a Parcel Legal Area. In addition, a Corner may be a location to which the boundaries of a subdivision of land are referenced.



A Corner may have multiple Corner Points, which serve as measures of markers for the legal location of the Corner. For example, a section corner may be disputed as to location and have two or more Corner Points, each of which may or may not be monumented.



Examples of Corners that are not on the extremities of a boundary of a subdivision of land are Corners with the Corner Classification code of Location Monument or with the Corner Qualifier code of Witness Point.





CORNER LABEL

The corner label is text about the name or description of a corner which can provide descriptive information about the corner in addition to the information provided by the Corner Classification Type and the Corner Qualifier Type. For example, the codes may identify the corner as being a Witness Corner to a Closing Section Corner. The label text could identify the corner as being the witness to the closing northwest corner of Section 3. Another example would be an identification of a Lot corner as being the northeast corner of Lot 4 in Block 5.







CORNER BOUNDARY ORIENTATION

Most Boundaries are oriented to begin at one corner and end at another. Some Record Boundaries may be tied to only one corner point instead of two. For example, the boundary of a circle field could be oriented by a "radius point," or by a combination of "point on the perimeter" and a "direction to radius." The boundary of a small island might be oriented by a "point on the perimeter" which is an auxiliary meander corner.



CORNER BOUNDARY ORIENTATION TYPE

This code table provides the orientation for boundaries. Most Boundaries are oriented to begin at one corner and end at another. Some Boundaries may be tied to only one corner point instead of two. For example, the boundary of a circle field could be oriented by a "radius point," or by a combination of "point on the perimeter" and a "direction to radius." The boundary of a small island might be oriented by a "point on the perimeter" which is an auxiliary meander corner.



Oriented by beginning at one corner and ending at another corner.



Oriented by Radius Point



Oriented by a Point on the Perimeter





CORNER CLASSIFICATION TYPE (FGDC Corner Classification)

The Corner Classification Code describes the use of the specific Corner.



1/4 Section Corner

A corner at the extremity of a boundary of a PLSS quarter-section, not including the section corner or center quarter section corner. Read as one quarter not one fourth.



1/16 Section Corner

Also termed "quarter-quarter section corner." A corner at an extremity of a boundary of a quarter-quarter section or 1/16th of a section; midpoint between or 20 chains from the controlling corners on the section or township boundaries.



1/64 Section Corner

A corner at an extremity of a boundary of a 1/64 subdivision of a section. A 1/64 subdivision is the result of the quartering of a quarter-quarter section.



1/256 Section Corner

A corner at an extremity of a boundary of a 1/256 subdivision of a section. A 1/256 subdivision is the result of the quartering of a 1/64 section.



1/1024 Section Corner

A corner at an extremity of a boundary of a 1/1024 subdivision of a section. A 1/024 subdivision is the result of the quartering of a 1/256 section.

Aliquot Part Corner

A corner at the extremity of an aliquot part which is a legal subdivision of Sections, except a fractional lot, or bordering further subdivision of any smaller legal subdivision, except a fractional lot, by division into halves or quarters ad infinitum.



Angle Point

A point of survey where the alinement or boundary deflects from a straight line. Any break in bearing on a survey can be considered an angle point. Angle Point is a corner classification which can be used when no other classification seems appropriate.



Auxiliary Meander Corner

A corner established at a suitable point on the meander line of a lake lying entirely within a quarter-section or on the meander line of an island falling entirely within a section and which is found to be too small to subdivide. A line is run connecting the auxiliary meander corner to a regular corner on the section boundary (BLM 1973, paragraphs 121 and 122). Also established where lines other than regular subdivision of section lines intersect a meander line (BLM 1973, sample plat).



Block Corner

A corner at the extremity of a block which is the platted portion of a subdivision surrounded by streets and avenues and plat boundaries. A block is usually subdivided into lots. Examples of subdivisions are Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites.



Center Quarter Section Corner

A special case of a quarter-corner. "To subdivide a section into quarter sections, run straight lines from established quarter-section corners to the opposite quarter-section corners. The point of intersection of the lines thus run will be the corner common to several quarter sections, or the legal center of section." (BLM 1973, paragraph 3-87). The above definition is sometimes termed the "federal center quarter-section corner" and applies to BLM cadastral surveys. Under state jurisdiction alternate methods of section subdivision may exist and a non-federal method center quarter-section corner determined. In some cases, such as completion surveys, it is possible for one section to have more than one center quarter-section corner.



Condominium Unit Corner

A corner at the extremity of a condominium unit which is that part of a Condominium Plat designated as an independent use unit to be set aside for the exclusive use a particular party.



Crossing Closing Corner

Crossing Closing Corner is a term used to describe a corner set where a township or section line intersects (crosses) the line of a surveyed mineral claim, forest homestead claim, small holding claim or the like. "A closing corner monument is not set at intersection with the line of a surveyed mineral claim, forest homestead claim, small holding claim or the like, unless required to provide an interval of monumentation of one half mile or less. In instances crossing closing corners may be needed for operational or litigation purposes, in which event they should be provided for in the special instructions." (BLM 1973, paragraph 3- 71).



Donation Land Claim Corner

A corner at the extremity of a boundary of lands granted under the Oregon Donation Act of 1850. The intent of this act was to grant and survey land claims based on settlements made prior to public lands being thrown open to general entry. This is a corner at the extremity of a boundary of an irregular parcel appearing on a federal plat.



Farm Unit Corner

A corner at the extremity of a Farm Unit which is the basic subdivision of an Irrigation Block created by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as the major subdivision of Irrigation Projects. The purpose was to create parcels for sale in the areas of eastern Washington developed for farming by the Irrigation Projects.



Fractional Part or Area Description Corner

A corner at the extremity of a parcel of land described as being a portion of another parcel. The portion can be specified by a fraction, length or area. Examples are the South half of Parcel A, the south 200 feet of Parcel A, and the South 5 acres of Parcel A.



Government Lot Corner

A corner at the extremity of a Lot subdivision of a section which is not described as an aliquot part of the section, but which is designated by number.



Homestead Entry Survey Corner

A corner at the extremity of a boundary of lands surveyed under the Agricultural Homestead Entry Act of 1906. This act segregated areas of agricultural value lying within National Forest Reserves. This is a corner at the extremity of a boundary of an irregular parcel appearing on a federal plat.



Indian Allotment Corner

A corner at the extremity of a parcel of public lands or Indian reservation lands allocated to an Native American for his/her individual use



Indian Reservation Corner

A corner at the extremity of a federal survey marking the boundaries of an Indian Reservation, which consists of lands reserved for the use of Native Americans.



International Boundary Monument

A monument marking the international boundary between the United States and Canada from the Gulf of Georgia to the northwestern most point of the Lake of the Woods.



International Boundary Reference Mark

A monument which determines the location of the international boundary between the United States and Canada, through Georgia, Haro, and Juan De Fuca Straits.



Intersection Point

The point of intersection to mark the intersection of one or more independently surveyed lines.



Irrigation Block Corner

A corner at the extremity of an Irrigation Block created by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as the major subdivision of Irrigation Projects. The purpose was to create parcels for sale in the areas of eastern Washington developed for farming by the Irrigation Projects.



Location Corner

A term applied to a position determined and marked by the locator (claimant) of a mineral right to distinctly and clearly define the boundaries of a mining claim on the ground. This is not the same as a Location Monument.



Location Monument

"When a mineral survey is situated in a district where there are no corners of the public survey and no other monuments within 2 miles, a location monument is established." (BLM 1973, paragraph 10-32.) "A location monument is most frequently used as a reference for one or more mineral surveys. It may also be used in any situation where no corner of an existing survey is available to provide a satisfactory connection for an isolated special survey. The monument is generally established in a conspicuous position with good visibility from every direction. The corner of a special survey may be designated as a location monument if it meets this qualification." (BLM 1973, paragraph 4-18). This definition includes U.S. Mineral Monuments and U.S. Location Monuments.



Lot Corner

A corner at the extremity of a Lot as defined in one of two manners.

(1) A plot of land, not surrounded by streets, which is the principle and only subdividing unit of a subdivision. Examples of subdivisions are Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites. An example would be the lots of a short plat containing no blocks and consisting of only 4 subdivisional parcels or lots. Cemetery Lots, though sometimes called Plots, should be classified as Lots.

(2) One of several other contiguous parcels of land making up a Block.



Meander Corner

A meander corner is established at every point where a Township line, section line, Land Grant, Homestead Entry Survey, Donation Land Claim of other survey intersects the bank of a navigable stream or other meanderable body of water. (BLM, 1973, paragraph 3-117.)



Metes and Bounds Description Corner

A corner at the extremity of a parcel of land described by citing the measure of length (metes) of the boundary lines (bounds). In general, the "metes" and "bounds" can be recited by reference to record, natural or artificial monuments at the corners and by reference to record, natural or cultural boundary lines. In modern usage, a metes and bounds description includes the bearings and distances of each course.



Mile Corner or Mile Post

"The mile corner of a State, Reservation or other grant boundary does not mark a point of a subdivision; it is a station along the line, however, long usage has given acceptance to the term." (BLM 1973, paragraph 5-4). The mile post includes Half Mile post corner categories.



Mineral Survey Corner

A corner at the extremity of a federal survey marking the boundaries of mineral deposits or ore-bearing formations on the public domain, where the boundaries are to be determined by lines other than the normal subdivision of public lands. This is a corner at the extremity of a boundary of an irregular parcel appearing on a federal plat.



Military Reservation Corner

A corner at the extremity of a federally platted military reservation. This is a corner at the extremity of a boundary of an irregular parcel appearing on a federal plat.



Outlot Corner

A corner at the extremity of an area of land on a plat which is to be used for a purpose other than a building site. A green belt is classified as an Outlot.



Point on Line

A stake or object a surveyor has placed on a line for convenience, such as for a backsight. Points on line are set in prominent places to facilitate identification of lines. Modern BLM cadastral surveys may refer to points on line as Witness Points. Points on Line may also be Line Trees.



Reference Monument

"A reference monument is an accessory and is employed in situations where the site of a corner is such that a regular permanent monument cannot be established or where the monument would be liable to destruction and bearing trees or a nearby bearing object are not available." (BLM 1973, paragraph 4-16)



Right of Way Corner

A corner at the extremity of a Right of Way which is any strip or area of land, including surface, overhead, or underground, granted by deed or easement, for construction and maintenance according to designated use, such as for drainage and irrigation canals and ditches; electric power, telegraph, and telephone lines; gas, oil, water, and other pipe lines; highways, and other roadways, including right of portage; sewers; flowage or impoundment of surface water; and tunnels.



Small Holding Claim Corner

A corner at the extremity of a Small Holding Claim which is an entry in which the entryman and his or her predecessors of interest maintained continuous, adverse, actual, bona fide possession of public lands for at least 20 years prior to BLM Cadastral Survey of the lands involved and is covered by Acts of March 3, 1891 and June 15, 1922 as amended. Small Holding Claims are identified by number.



Small Tracts Act Corner

A corner at the extremity of a Small Tracts Act Survey which is a parcel of land surveyed under the authority of the Small Tracts Act, Public Law 97-465, January 12, 1983. It applies to parcels within the National Forest System which may be sold, exchanged, or interchanged. The acreage of the parcels may be: (1) 40 acres or less when interspersed with adjacent lands not in federal ownership, (2) 10 acres or less when encroached upon by color of title improvements, or (3) Rights of way, reserved or acquired, which are no longer needed by the federal government and are surrounded by lands not owned by the federal government.



Section Corner

A corner at the extremity of a PLSS section boundary.



Special Meander Corner

"A corner established at: 1) the intersection of a surveyed subdivision of section line and a meander line of a body of water or an island; 2) the intersection of a computed center line of a section and a meander line of an island over 50 acres in area which is located entirely within a section." (BLM 1973, paragraphs 121 and 122).



Subdivision Boundary Corner

A corner on the external boundary line of any tract of land divided into lots for purposes of sale. A subdivision in this sense includes Assessor's Plats, Binding Site Plans, Cemeteries, Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites.



Township Corner

A corner at the extremity of a PLSS township boundary. Normally a PLSS township has four township corners. This does not include section, quarter-section or section subdivision corners which are on a PLSS township boundary.



CORNER CLASS LABEL NM ?????????



CORNER CLASS NM ???????????





CORNER POINT (FGDC Corner Point)

A Corner Point is a point which marks the ends of Record Boundaries or the extremities of a Legal Area. A Corner Point can also be a point to which such boundaries and extremities are referenced.



A Corner Point may or may not be monumented and is any representation of a Corner.



A Corner may have multiple Corner Points, which serve as measures of markers for the legal location of the Corner. For example, a section corner may be disputed as to location and have two or more Corner Points, each of which may or may not be monumented.



An example of a Corner Point not at the extremity of a boundary is a Location Monument.



CORNER POINT ACCEPT FLAG

This flag indicates if the Corner Point is accepted as the location of the Corner.



CORNER POINT ACCEPT DATE

The date at which the Corner Point was accepted as the location of the Corner.







CORNER QUALIFIER TYPE (FGDC Corner Qualifier)

The Corner Qualifier is used to identify additional information about the relative placement of the Corner.



Amended

There are two primary applications of amended monuments stated in the BLM Manual of Instruction. In general a monument whose position no longer marks the true position for the corner. The monument is marked A.M. "If it is known that a mineral survey, homestead entry, small holding claim, right of way, reservoir, or other survey has been connected with a corner of an exterior subject to rectification, the fact is stated in the special instruction. In such a case the marks A.M. (signifying amended monument) are added to the original corner monument and the old corner is connected by course and distance to the new." (BLM 1973, paragraph 3-36.) "A recovered closing corner not actually located on the line that was closed upon will determine the direction of the closing line, but not its legal terminus. The correct position is at the true point of intersection of the two lines. The new monument in those cases where it is required will always be placed at the true point of intersection. An off-line monument in those cases where a new monument is required will be marked A.M. (for amended monument) and will be connected by course and distance." (BLM 1973, paragraphs 5-41 and 8- 16(6).)



Center

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is along center line of a parent subdivisional entity. For example, a Center 1/4 Corner is in the center of a section and on both the north-south center line and east-west center line of the section. A Center West Northwest 1/64 Corner is along the center line of the Northwest 1/4 Section, specifically along the west half of that center line.



Closing

"Closing corners are intended to be established where a closing line intersects a boundary already fixed in position. While the closing corner thereafter controls the direction of the closing line, a failure to place it at the true intersection does not alter the position of the line closed upon..." (BLM 1973, paragraph 3-73). The "closing" qualifier will differentiate junior corners on a standard parallel from the "standard" or senior corners.



East

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is along the east half of a section or subdivisional line. For example, an East 1/16 Corner is a subdivisional corner along the west half of a section line. A Center East 1/16 Corner is on the east half of the center line of a section. Another example would be an East West 1/64 Corner, which is a corner on the east half of the west half of a section line. A Center East West 1/64 corner is on the east half of the west half of the centerline of a section.. Another example would be the Center East Southwest 1/64 corner, which is a corner along the east half of the center line of the southwest 1/4 section.



North

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is along the north half of a section or subdivisional line. For example, a North 1/16 Corner is a subdivisional corner along the north half of a section line. A Center North 1/16 Corner is on the north half of the center line of a section. Another example would be a North South 1/64 Corner, which is a corner on the north half of the south half of a section line. A Center North South 1/64 corner is on the north half of the south half of the center line of a section.. Another example would be the Center North Southwest 1/64 corner, which is a corner along the north half of the center line of the southwest 1/4 section.



Northeast

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is in the northeast quadrant of the frame of reference. For example, the Northeast 1/16 corner is at the center of the northeast 1/4 section. Another example would be the Northeast Southwest 1/64 corner, which is the corner in the center of the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of a section. Another example would be the Center South Northeast 1/64th corner which is a corner along the south half of the center line of the northeast 1/4 section.



Northwest

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is in the northwest quadrant of the frame of reference. For example, the Northwest 1/16 corner is at the center of the northwest 1/4 section. Another example would be the Northwest Southwest 1/64 corner, which is the corner in the center of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of a section. Another example would be the Center South Northwest 1/64th corner which is a corner along the south half of the center line of the northwest 1/4 section.



South

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is along the south half of a section or subdivisional line. For example, a South 1/16 Corner is a subdivisional corner along the south half of a section line. A Center South 1/16 Corner is on the south half of the center line of a section. Another example would be a South North 1/64 Corner, which is a corner on the south half of the north half of a section line. A Center South North 1/64 corner is on the south half of the north half of the center line of a section.. Another example would be the Center South Southwest 1/64 corner, which is a corner along the south half of the center line of the southwest 1/4 section.



Southeast

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is in the southeast quadrant of the frame of reference. For example, the Southeast 1/16 corner is at the center of the southeast 1/4 section. Another example would be the Southeast Southwest 1/64 corner, which is the corner in the center of the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of a section. Another example would be the Center South Southeast 1/64th corner which is a corner along the south half of the center line of the southeast 1/4 section.



Southwest

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is in the southwest quadrant of the frame of reference. For example, the Southwest 1/16 corner is at the center of the southwest 1/4 section. Another example would be the Southwest Southwest 1/64 corner, which is the corner in the center of the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of a section. Another example would be the Center South Southwest 1/64th corner which is a corner along the south half of the center line of the southwest 1/4 section.



Standard

A Standard corner is "a senior corner on a standard parallel or base line." (BLM Glossary) "Standard parallels, which are also called correction lines, are extended east and west from the principle meridian, at intervals of 24 miles north and south of the base line." (BLM 1973, 3-12) The "standard" qualifier will differentiate senior corners on a standard parallel from the "closing" or junior corners.



West

A qualifier for a section subdivision corner. It means that the corner is along the west half of a section or subdivisional line. For example, a West 1/16 Corner is a subdivisional corner along the west half of a section line. A Center West 1/16 Corner is on the west half of the center line of a section. Another example would be a West East 1/64 Corner, which is a corner on the west half of the east half of a section line. A Center West East 1/64 corner is on the west half of the east half of the centerline of a section.. Another example would be the Center West Southwest 1/64 corner, which is a corner along the west half of the center line of the southwest 1/4 section.



Witness

"A witness corner is a monumented point usually on a line of the survey and near a corner. It is established only in situations where it is impracticable to occupy the site of a corner." (BLM 1973, paragraph 4-15).







CURVE (Supertype over all FGDC Curves)

A curve is a line having no straight part. The two primary types of curves in the land survey system are circular and spiral curves.



CENTRAL ANGLE

A tangent is a line that touches a given curve at one and only one point and does not intersect it. The central angle is the angle subtended by the lines perpendicular to the tangent to the curve at the beginning and end of the curve. In alignment surveys it is commonly called the delta angle.



This is an angular measurement in units defined by the Direction Unit.



INITIAL DIRECTION TO RADIUS

A tangent is a line that touches a given curve at one and only one point and does not intersect it. The Initial Direction to Radius is the direction of the line perpendicular to the tangent to the curve at the beginning of the curve and leading in the same direction as the curve. If the curve is curving toward the left, then the direction to radius will be in that direction. For a Circular Curve, the Initial Direction to Radius will be the direction from the beginning of the curve towards the radius point of the curve.









DEGREE OF CURVE TYPE

The degree of curve of a curve is perfectly defined by its radius. There are two definitions: 1) (chord) The angle subtended at the center of a circle by a chord of 100 feet. 2) (arc) The angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc of 100 feet. Definition 1) was used in railroad and early highway design. Definition 2) is used in present day engineering of highway design.





Chord Definition

The angle subtended at the center of a circle by a chord of 100 feet. In this case, for a circular curve, the degree of curvature in degrees equals 2 times the arcsin of 50 divided by the radius in feet. D=2arcsin(50/R).



Arc Definition

The angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc of 100 feet. In this case, for a circular curve, the degree of curvature in degrees equals 360 times 100 divided by 2 pi times the radius in feet. D = (360*100) / (2*pi*R) = 5729.58 / R.









GEODETIC CONTROL POINT (not in FGDC Cadastral)

A control station is a precisely coordinated point correlated with other coordinated points. A Geodetic Control Point is a horizontal and/or vertical control station that has been established and adjusted by geodetic methods and in which the shape and size of the earth (geoid) have been considered in position computations. Horizontal geodetic coordinates are latitude and longitude with respect to a reference spheroid. Vertical geodetic elevations are relative to a datum extended over a large area and used to furnish accurate vertical control for surveying and mapping operations. A Geodetic Control Point provides a relationship between the corners of legal areas and a global coordinate system.





GEODETIC POINT NAME

Up to 40 characters of text which represent the name used to identify the control point



GEODETIC POINT ALIAS

Up to 40 characters of text which represent an alternate form of the name used to identify the control point. These alias entries arise due to non-standard naming conventions used by various agencies and individuals.



GEODETIC POINT PID

An alphanumeric designator given by an agency to identify the Geodetic Control Point.



For the National Geodetic Survey the Point ID Number is a six-character Permanent Identifier (PID, formerly known as ACRN) which now serves as the primary means for matching recovery description data against the data base for marks known to NGS.



Other agencies may have their own unique PID system. The DNR at present, February of 1998, uses a four digit integer for the PID. It is anticipated that in the future the DNR will run out of the present series of PID's and be required to add new digits or letters.





HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT

Horizontal Coordinates are a set of two numbers designating the location of a point in 2-dimensional space, whether on a plane or on the surface of a spheroid. Coordinates are almost always associated with coordinate systems.



North-South Plane Coordinate

This is the coordinate describing the north-south position of the point. A Plane Rectangular Cartesian north-south coordinate, a northing, is the distance from the east-west axis of the coordinate system in a direction parallel to the north-south axis. Distances north of the axis are positive and distances south of the axis are negative.



East-West Plane Coordinate

This is the coordinate describing the east-west position of the point. A Plane Rectangular Cartesian east-west coordinate, an easting, is the distance from the north-south axis of the coordinate system in a direction parallel to the east-west axis. Distances east of the axis are positive and distances west of the axis are negative.



Latitude

This is the coordinate describing the north-south position of the point. A geographic north-south coordinate is a latitude, defined as the angle which the normal at the Point, projected to the ellipsoid, makes with the plane of the geodetic equator. Positive Latitudes will be understood to be the angle measured north from the equator.



Longitude

This is the coordinate describing the east-west position of the point. A geographic east-west coordinate is a longitude, defined as the angle between the plane of the geodetic meridian passing through the Point and the plane of the Meridian of Greenwich. Positive Longitudes will be understood to be the angle measured west from Greenwich.



Horizontal Coordinate Accept Flag

Set the flag if the north-south and east-west components of the Measured Coordinate are accepted by the database as the best representation of the position of the point. If the flag is set, then the north-south and east-west components of the Measured Coordinate will be converted to NAD 83 latitudes and longitudes for purpose of populating those attributes of the Coordinated Point.





HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT TYPE

Horizontal Coordinates are a set of two numbers designating the location of a point in 2-dimensional space. Coordinates are almost always associated with coordinate systems.



Geographic

A coordinate system consisting of the pairs of coordinates that specify the angular distances of a point from a meridian and from the equator.



Plane Rectangular Cartesian

A coordinate system consisting of two straight line axes intersecting at a common point and perpendicular to each other; the coordinates of a point are the distances from the point along a line parallel to one axis and extending to the other axis.







HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY LEVEL

The Horizontal Accuracy indicates the 95% confidence accuracy range for the horizontal components of the coordinates, the north-south coordinate and the east-west coordinate. For example, for coordinates with a 1-meter accuracy range, 95% of them will have a true value within 1-meter of the nominal value.



1 1-Millimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.001 meters.

2 2-Millimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.002 meters.

3 5-Millimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.005 meters.

4 1-Centimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.010 meters.

5 2-Centimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.020 meters.

6 5-Centimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.050 meters.

7 1-Decimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.100 meters.

8 2-Decimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.200 meters.

9 5-Decimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.500 meters.

10 1-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 1.000 meters.

11 2-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 2.000 meters.

12 5-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 5.000 meters.

13 10-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 10.000 meters.

14 20-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 20.000 meters.

15 50-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 50.000 meters.

16 100-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 100.000 meters.

17 >100-Meter. 95-percent confidence value greater than 100.000 meters.







HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT ADJUST YEAR



This is the year in which the National Geodetic Survey made the coordinate adjustment for the given datum. For example, in 1998 the most recent adjustment in the State of Washington of the NAD 83 datum was in the year 1991.





HORIZONTAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT DATUM

An ellipsoid is a closed surface whose planar sections are either ellipses or circles.

For a horizontal datum a reference ellipsoid is an ellipsoid of specified dimensions and associated with the geodetic reference system or datum and to which coordinates in the reference system are said to be with respect.

A spheroid is any surface differing but little from a sphere. Many reference ellipsoids of older vintage have been called spheroids.

A geodetic datum is a set of constants specifying the coordinate system used for geodetic control, i.e., for calculating coordinates of points on the earth. At least eight constants are needed to form a complete datum: three to specify the location of the origin of the coordinate system, three to specify the orientation of the coordinate system, and two to specify the dimensions of the reference ellipsoid. Before geocentric geodetic datums became possible, it was customary to define a geodetic datum by five quantities: the latitude and longitude of an initial point, the azimuth of a line from this point, and the (two) parameters of the reference ellipsoid. This meaning does not conform to modern usage.



NAD 83

The North American Datum of 1983 is the horizontal control datum for the United States, Canada, Mexico and Central America, based on a geocentric origin and the Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS 80) ellipsoid.



NAD 27

The North American Datum of 1927 is the horizontal control datum that is defined by the following location and azimuth on the Clark spheroid of 1866, with origin at Meades Ranch:

longitude 98 32' 30.506" W

latitude 39 13' 26.686" N

azimuth from Meades Ranch to Waldo

75 28' 09.64"

Geodetic positions on the North American Datum of 1927 were derived from the above location and azimuth through a readjustment of the triangulation of the entire network in which Laplace azimuths were introduced, and the Bowie method was used.







LEGAL AREA DESCRIPTION (FGDC Legal Area Description)



A Legal Area Description is the basic or elemental spatial building block that provides the structure for the delineation of parcels of land or water. A parcel of land or water is a portion of land identified for purpose of ownership, encumbrance, taxation or governmental administration, and whose area is defined by a legal description. A legal description is a description of real property by government or private survey or by metes and bounds. Such a description must be complete enough that it delineates one specific piece of land and cannot apply to another piece of land.



An elemental spatial building block can be any legally described single, not composite, area. A section of land is a elemental unit, as are any of its subdivisions, aliquot parts and government lots. What unit is elemental depends on focus. If one is interested in the section as a whole, then the section is elemental. If one is interested in the SE1/4 of the NE1/4 of the section, then that aliquot part is elemental. Any elemental spatial building block can be subdivided into smaller elementals. Government Lot 1 is an elemental unit, but Government Lots 1 and 2 together are a composite area and is not a legal area description.





The following is a more normal definition of "Legal Description" which does not satisfy the needs of the Cadastral Database.

A Legal Area Description is "the proper grouping of words which delineates one specific piece of land and which cannot apply to any other piece of land. Although the definition is correctly stated as 'land' description, it is generally called 'legal' because it must stand up under the law and litigation." (Writing Legal Descriptions by Gurdon H. Wattles)



A Legal Area Description provides the structure for the delineation of areal extents of land or water. These structures can be used to build legal descriptions based on areas.





LOCAL PLANE



A local plane coordinate system is set up at the convenience of the surveyor. The reference axes are usually assumed so that all coordinates are in the first quadrant, not negative. The Y-axis may be in the direction of astronomic north, magnetic north, or an assumed north.



MEASURED COORDINATE METHOD

A Measured Coordinate is derived by some methodology or system which defines the process and/or equipment used.



Calculation

The Calculation method describes coordination methods using some sort of mathematical process for deriving the coordinate. A BLM protraction diagram in which latitudes and longitudes are calculated for corners without a field survey would fit this type. Other examples are right of way designs and proportioned corners.



Computerized Map Scaling

The Computerized Map Scaling method describes the use of computer maps and a computer pointing devise. The coordinate is computed and displayed by the computer program.



Conventional Survey

The Conventional Survey method describes the coordination of points using traditional field survey equipment which includes transits, theodolites, total stations, steel tapes, and electronic distance meters. Some calculation must be performed to derive the coordinate from the use of the field equipment, but the derivation of the coordinate is primarily from a direct measurement to an existing corner point.



Digitized

The Digitized method describes the use of a computer digitizing board and a puck to register the coordinate base and to pick points for coordination.



Geodetic GPS Survey

The Geodetic GPS Survey method describes the use of the Global Positioning System to make coordinate measurements of high accuracy, typically better than 10 centimeters uncertainty, using the GPS signal carrier phase. The Global Positioning System is the US Department of Defense system of navigational satellites, their ground control stations and GPS receivers.



Inertial Survey

The Inertial Survey method describes the use of an inertial measurement unit to measure the coordinate. An inertial measurement unit consists of an assembly of either two or three precision gyroscopes; a triad of accelerometers mounted so as to measure north-south, east-west, and vertical accelerations; the necessary sensing or pick-off elements needed to sense the orientations of the gyroscopes and displacements of the accelerometers; and torquers which provide rotations of the elements to bring them into desired orientations. The gyroscopes in effect take the place of angle measuring instruments while the accelerometers perform the work of distance measuring instruments.



Mechanical Map Scaling

The Mechanical Map Scaling method describes the use of a scale ruler and map to derive map coordinates relative to coordinate grid ticks on the map.



Photo Pinned

The Photo Pinned method describes the field location of a point on an aerial photo by means of a pin prick and then that transformation of that pin prick into a coordinate by the methodology of phototriangulation. The can be considered a special case of phototriangulation.



Phototriangulation

Phototriangulation (aerotriangulation) may be defined as the method of establishing supplementary horizontal and vertical control through the geometric relationship of adjacent aerial photographs. The relating of the geometry of one photograph to an adjacent photograph may be accomplished analytically or mechanically. The latter includes the use of stereoplotting instruments for joining successive models, and other mechanical devises through which the relationship of scale and orientation may be transmitted from one photograph to the next.



Resource Grade GPS

The Resource GPS Survey method describes the use of the Global Positioning System to make coordinate measurements of relatively accuracy, typically greater than 10 centimeters uncertainty, using the GPS signal code phase. The Global Positioning System is the US Department of Defense system of navigational satellites, their ground control stations and GPS receivers.







NON-PLSS CORNER (FGDC Legal Area Corner)

A Non-PLSS Corner is the corner of a Non-PLSS Described Area



Non PLSS Corner Label

This text field is used to make unique identifiers for all the corners of a Non-PLSS Described Area. This field performs the same function for the corners of a Non-PLSS Described Area entity that the GCDB Number performs for the corners of a PLSS Township.



Non PLSS Corner Sequence

This text field is used to identify the sequence, if any, of the corners of a Non-PLSS Described Area.





NON-PLSS DESCRIBED AREA (FGDC Survey System Description and subentities)

Public Land Survey System Descriptions are descriptions for areas of land that follow the pattern of Townships and Ranges established by the federal government in 1785 and its successors. Non-PLSS Described Areas are areas described by any other methodology or system. A Non-PLSS Described Area description can overlay a PLSS described area.



Non-PLSS Described Area Name

This text field contains the name, if any, of a Non-PLSS Described Area. For example, subdivisions normally have a name, e.g. "Wright's Addition to Rochester."



Non-PLSS Described Area Number

This text field contains the number of letter, if any, of a Non-PLSS Described Area. For example, Block A or Lot 10.



Non-PLSS Described Area Duplicate Status Flag

This is an indicator for duplicate Non-PLSS Described Areas. If a Non-PLSS Described Area has a non-unique number, letter, or name as another Non-PLSS Described Area then it is a duplicate. For example Block 10 and Block 11 may both have a Lot 4 without either Lot 4 being a duplicate. But if Block 10 has two Lot 4's, then they are both duplicates.



Non-PLSS Described Area Portion

This field contains the text of that portion of a Non-PLSS description that is a portion of another area description. For example, "the south 200 feet of Government Lot 2."





NON-PLSS DESCRIBED AREA TYPE

Every Non-PLSS Described Area can be uniquely categorized as being of a certain type or class which groups these areas with others having characteristics in common. This code table captures those classes.



Assessor Plat

An Assessor Plat is a survey and description of one or more areas of land owned by two or more persons in severalty that is ordered to be done by a governing body with property taxation authority for the purpose of making sufficient and accurate determination of assessment, taxation, or tax title. The rules for Assessor Plats are defined by State law.



Binding Site Plan

In Washington a type of land subdivision adopted by a city, town, or county ordinance as an alternative subdivision method for commercial properties. "The ordinance shall be limited and only apply to one or more of the following: (1) The use of a binding site plan to divisions for sale or lease of commercially or industrially zoned property as provided in RCW 58.17.040(4); (2) divisions of property for lease as provided for in RCW 58.17.040(5); and (3) divisions of property as provided for in RCW 58.17.040(7)... Lots, parcels, or tracts created through the binding site plan procedure shall be legal lots of record." (RCW 58.17.035)



Block

The platted portion of a subdivision surrounded by streets and avenues and plat boundaries. A block is usually subdivided into lots. Examples of subdivisions are Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites.



Cemetery

A Cemetery divides the land into lots and rights-of-way. The rules for Cemetery Plat, which describe the extent of lots and rights-of-way, are controlled by State law.



Condominium Subdivision

A Condominium Subdivision is a map and description of rights to land or space that are defined by State law and contain allocated interests, common elements, and independent use units. The laws governing the creation, survey, and definition of condominiums are defined by State law.



Condominium Unit

That part of a Condominium Plat designated as an independent use unit to be set aside for the exclusive use a particular party.



Farm Unit

The Farm Unit is the basic subdivision of an Irrigation Block created by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as the major subdivision of Irrigation Projects. The purpose was to create parcels for sale in the areas of eastern Washington developed for farming by the Irrigation Projects.





Fractional Part or Area Description

A description of a parcel of land as being a portion of another parcel. The portion can be specified by a fraction, length or area. Examples are the South half of Parcel A, the south 200 feet of Parcel A, and the South 5 acres of Parcel A.



Homestead Entry Survey

A Homestead Entry Survey is a metes and bounds survey entered under the Agricultural Homestead Entry Act of June 11, 1906 as amended that describes the Homestead Entry. This act segregated areas of agricultural value lying within National Forest Reserves.



Indian Allotment

An Indian Allotment is an allocation of a parcel of public lands or Indian Reservation lands to a Native American for his or her individual use. Indian Allotments are identified by either a name or a number.



Irrigation Block

The United States Bureau of Reclamation created Irrigation Blocks as the major subdivision of Irrigation Projects. The purpose was to create parcels for sale in the areas of eastern Washington developed for farming by the Irrigation Projects.



Lode Claim

A mining claim embracing public lands which contain minerals occurring in a vein or lode.



Lot

(1) A plot of land, not surrounded by streets, which is the principle and only subdividing unit of a subdivision. Examples of subdivisions are Short Subdivisions, Subdivisions, and Townsites. An example would be the lots of a short plat containing no blocks and consisting of only 4 subdivisional parcels or lots. Cemetery Lots, though sometimes called Plots, should be classified as Lots.

(2) One of several other contiguous parcels of land making up a Block.



Metes And Bounds Description

A parcel of land described by citing the measure of length (metes) of the boundary lines (bounds). In general, the "metes" and "bounds" can be recited by reference to record, natural or artificial monuments at the corners and by reference to record, natural or cultural boundary lines. In modern usage, a metes and bounds description includes the bearings and distances of each course.



Mill Site

Up to 5 acres of public land may be claimed for the purpose of processing minerals. Mill sites are limited to lands that do not contain valuable minerals.



Mineral Claim

The primary subdivision of a mineral survey which may consist of one or more lode claims, placer claims, or mill sites.



Mineral Survey

A Mineral Survey is a survey of one or more lode claims, placer claims, or mill sites with all their notes and plats. This type of survey is executed by a U.S. Mineral Surveyor for the purposes of marking the legal boundaries of mining claims on the public domain. Mineral Surveys are identified by number. Mineral surveys may be subdivided into lodes, placers or millsites.



Military Reservation

Federal lands which have been dedicated for military purposes.



Outlot

An area of land on a plat which is to be used for a purpose other than a building site. A green belt is classified as an Outlot.



Placer Claim

A mining claim located on the public domain for the purpose of placer mining. Under U.S. mining laws, mineral deposits not veins or lodes in place, are treated as placers so far as locating, holding, surveying, and patenting are concerned. A placer is an alluvial or glacial deposit containing particles of valuable minerals.



Right of Way

Any strip or area of land, including surface, overhead, or underground, granted by deed or easement, for construction and maintenance according to designated use, such as for drainage and irrigation canals and ditches; electric power, telegraph, and telephone lines; gas, oil, water, and other pipe lines; highways, and other roadways, including right of portage; sewers; flowage or impoundment of surface water; and tunnels.



Short Subdivision

In Washington a Short Subdivision "is the division or redivision of land into four or fewer lots, tracts, parcels, sites or divisions for the purpose of sale, lease, or transfer of ownership: PROVIDED, That the legislative authority of any city or town may by local ordinance increase the number of lots, tracts, or parcels to be regulated as a short subdivision to a maximum of nine." (RCW 58.17.020(6))



Small Holding Claim

A Small Holding Claim is an entry in which the entryman and his or her predecessors of interest maintained continuous, adverse, actual, bona fide possession of public lands for at least 20 years prior to BLM Cadastral Survey of the lands involved and is covered by Acts of March 3, 1891 and June 15, 1922 as amended. Small Holding Claims are identified by number.



Small Tracts Act

A Small Tracts Act Survey is a parcel of land surveyed under the authority of the Small Tracts Act, Public Law 97-465, January 12, 1983. It applies to parcels within the National Forest System which may be sold, exchanged, or interchanged. The acreage of the parcels may be: (1) 40 acres or less when interspersed with adjacent lands not in federal ownership, (2) 10 acres or less when encroached upon by color of title improvements, or (3) Rights of way, reserved or acquired, which are no longer needed by the federal government and are surrounded by lands not owned by the federal government.



Subdivision

In general a Subdivision is a tract of land divided into Lots for purposes of sale. A Subdivision may be recorded or unrecorded. A recorded Subdivision is a unit of land defined by a survey which is governed by State subdivision law or local ordinance. A subdivision plat is a simultaneous conveyance where all divisions of land within the subdivision plat have equal standing with each other. In Washington a Subdivision "is the division or redivision of land into five or more lots, tracts, parcels, sites or divisions for the purpose of sale, lease, or transfer of ownership, except as provided" (RCW 58.17.020(1)) in the definition of "short subdivisions."



Survey

The description of a piece of land may be by reference to a Survey. A Survey is a measurement of the land recorded on a survey map that describes areas of land. A Survey is usually completed by a State certified Registered Land Surveyor and filed according to State laws. If a survey falls into another category, such as a Subdivision, Homestead Entry Survey, etc., then that other category is the appropriate one. This type is reserved for those surveys which are not otherwise categorized.



Townsite

A Townsite is an area which has been segregated for urban development, often subdivided into blocks which are further subdivided into lots. One type of townsite is a survey of street and lot boundaries executed to segregate from public lands an area of land qualifying under the townsite laws. Another type of Townsite may be a city subdivision.









PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM



A plane coordinate system is a system defining positions by pairs of coordinates which are the perpendicular distances of a point from a pair of axes which intersect at right angles, reckoned in the plane defined by those axes. The position of a point on the earth can be defined by plane rectangular coordinates on a tangent plane (a local system of plane coordinates), or on a so-called conic or cylindrical map projection, such as are used in the state plane coordinate systems.



PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM TYPE



State Plane

One of the plane rectangular systems in the United States established for use in defining geodetic locations in terms of plane-rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Each State is mapped by a conformal map projection in one or more zones, over each of which is placed a rectangular grid. Zones of limited east-west extent and indefinite north-south extent are mapped by a transverse Mercator map projection; zones of indefinite east-west extent and limited north-south extent are mapped by the Lambert conformal conic map projection with two standard parallels. Zone One of Alaska is on the oblique Mercator map projection. The use of the projections assures that, for zones having a width of 250 kilometers, the greatest departure from exact scale (scale error) is 1 part in 10,000.



Universal Transverse Mercator

A special case of the transverse Mercator projection, abbreviated as the UTM grid. It consists of 60 north-south zones, each 6 wide in longitude. The system is designed for world-wide use and is particularly useful for work in countries that have no other coordinate system.



Local

A plane coordinate system that has its origin within the region being investigated and is used principally for points within that region. A local coordinate system is usually not related to a Geodetic Datum.





PLSS ALIQUOT PART (FGDC PLSS Township Second Subdivision)



Legal subdivisions of Sections, except fractional lots, or further subdivision of any smaller legal subdivision, except fractional lots, by division into halves or quarters ad infinitum.





PLSS ALIQUOT PART TYPE

This code describes which half or quarter is the Aliquot Part.



Northeast Quarter

Southeast Quarter

Southwest Quarter

Northwest Quarter

North Half

South Half

East Half

West Half







PLSS CORNER (FGDC Legal Area Corner)

A PLSS Corner is a legal location that marks an extremity of a boundary of a PLSS Township Area or a Partial Township Area or a Partial Section Area.



PLSS CORNER LABEL

A more descriptive name than the GCDB coding can provide. An example would be the "corner common to sections 1, 2, 11 and 12." The GCDB code for the same corner would be "600600." Another example would be the "meander corner between sections 1 and 2 on the south side of the Cowlitz River," for which the GCDB code is not automatically know as in the first example.



PLSS CORNER GCDB CODE

see next page

PLSS CORNER GCDB CODE



The PLSS Corner GCDB (Geographic Coordinate Data Base) Code is an integer describing the legal location. These are integers for Corners on the base land net.



Valid integers are in the range 100100 to 999999.



The BLM Standard Corner Number consists of a 6 digit number. The first 3 digits, somewhat like an X coordinate represent corners on the N-S section lines, counting from the West boundary of a standard township. The second 3 digits, similar to a Y coordinate, represent corners located on the E-W section lines counting from the south. Corners below the section corner level are indicated in approx. chain units i.e. counting from the West and South boundaries of the section. For example the 1/4 corner bet. 20 and 21 is: 300340.



The following diagram illustrates the use of the Standard Corner Number in a normal township.































































* Section corners are characterized by even x00y00 values, like 500300.



* Quarter Section corners are characterized by even 40 chain values like 500340, 540300 or 540340 which is the center 1/4 section corner of section 23.



* Sixteenth Section corners are characterized by even 20 chain values exclusive of the above. Values like 500320, 500360, 560300 (the East 1/16 corner between sections 23 and 26), and 520360 is the SE 1/16 corner of section 23.



* Corners below the 1/16 level are numbered in a similar fashion. This system works only for section subdivisional corners. Corners of special surveys and non-Federal subdivisions either need to be given a number corresponding to the nearest chain value for a Standard Corner Number or need to be some other designation.



* Creativity is required in extended sections. 1/16-80 corners can receive a 400680 designation, but sections elongated beyond 90 chains will require your imagination.



* Witness corners, meander corners, closing corners, etc. are designated at their approximate chain value in the system being careful to avoid EVEN chain increments. For example: a closing corner, CC, on the north boundary of the township that is offset 20 chains from the standard corners might logically be labeled 420700, but since this would indicate a `regular' 1/16 section corner it should not be used. Instead 419700 or 421700 would be possible selections.



This is a departure from the GCDB system in at least two ways:



1) No particular rules are applied to these odd numbered corners, however GCDB rules that do not conflict with this system can be used.



2) Closing Corners and Standard Corners are designated according to their function in the PLSS rather that their role in the particular township. In GCDB the CC between sections 1 and 2 functions as a section corner and is designated 600700 for the township to the south, but it is not a section corner for the township to the north. In that township it would receive an `odd' designation.



The PLSS is very much more complex a system to be able to easily define rules to apply to all cases, user intuition and creativity will have to deal with unusual cases.









PLSS DONATION LAND CLAIM (FGDC PLSS Township First Division)

The land, 320 or 640 acres, that was allocated to an Oregon settler under the Donation Act of September 27, 1850. The intent of this act was to grant and survey land claims based on settlements made prior to public lands being thrown open to general entry.



Donation Land Claim Number

An integer identifying the DLC. DLC's within a township are numbered beginning with 37 or the next highest unused numerical designation to avoid confusion with section numbers.



Donation Land Claim Name

A name identifying the DLC. DLC's within a township may be given a name, but are always given a number.





PLSS GOVERNMENT LOT (FGDC PLSS Township Second Division)

A Lot subdivision of a section which is not described as an aliquot part of the section, but which is designated by number, e.g., LOT 2. A lot may be regular or irregular in shape and its acreage varies from that of regular subdivisions. The term "Government Lot" is commonly used by persons outside the Bureau of Land Management in referring to such a subdivision of a section.



There are two ways in which Government Lots are created.

(1) The fractional part of a Public Land Survey Section protracted by office procedures from field notes and designated by boundary limits, area and number (not always) on the township plat. Government Lots occur along the irregular boundaries of Fractional Sections and along the closing boundaries of Closing Sections. They may also occur interior to section boundaries.

(2) A Lot or Small Tract is a federal unit of section subdivision as described in the BLM Manual of Surveying Instructions.

(BLM 7-6.) "Unless tracts have been segregated in the course of an independent resurvey, in which case they are treated as described under that subject, an irregular parcel lying entirely with a surveyed section should be designated as a lot of that section. "Small tracts," when not aliquot parts of sections, are designated as lots wherever they can be identified as parts of a section. The description is by lot, section, and township."

(BLM 7-32.) "The Act of June 1, 1938, (52 Stat. 609), as amended by the Act of June 8, 1954 (68 Stat. 239; 43 U.S.C. 682a), provides for the sale or lease of small tracts not exceeding five acres. The survey made to delineate the tracts differs from a townsite survey in that it normally follows a pattern of progressional subdivision down to the desired lot sizes without block designations or the segregation of streets and alleys. Regulations provide for reserving rights-of-way in the patents or leases."

(BLM 7-33.) "The first requirement of the survey is the establishment or reestablishment of the section boundaries. Under favorable circumstances the section may be subdivided into legal subdivisions and thereafter into lesser aliquot parts. However, it is sometimes necessary to depart from normal subdivision lines in order to make the tract layout compatible with drainage features, existent roads, and improvements on adjoining lands."

(BLM 7-34.) "While the individual parcels are called 'small tracts,' they are designated on the official plat as lots when not describable as aliquot parts of the section."



GOVERNMENT LOT NUMBER

The integer identifying the Government Lot as a unique subdivision of the Section in which it lies. Government Lots are numbered beginning with 1. Some Government Lots were left unnumbered.



GOVERNMENT LOT DUPLICATE STATUS FLAG

This is an indicator for duplicate Government Lots. If a Government Lot has the same number as another Government Lot in the same section, then it is a duplicate.



PLSS GOVERNMENT LOT NOMINAL SIXTEENTH SECTION

This identifies the Government lot as to its corresponding aliquot part. If the government lot did not exist, it identifies which sixteenth section would be in the same position. If more than one sixteenth section applies, then both are to be indicated.



NE/14 NE/14

NW1/4 NE1/4

NE1/4 NW1/4

NW1/4 NW1/4

SW1//4 NW1/4

SE1/4 NW1/4

SW1/4 NE1/4

SE1/4 NE1/4

NW1/4 SW1/4

NE1/4 SW1/4

NW1/4 SE1/4

NE1/4 SE1/4

SE1/4 SE1/4

SW1/4 SE1/4

SE1/4 SW1/4

SW1/4 SW1/4







PLSS GOVERNMENT PARCEL (FGDC PLSS Township Second Division)

Government Parcels are created when the BLM subdivides acquired land. A Government Parcel is a federal unit of section subdivision as described in the BLM Manual of Surveying Instructions.

"Except in independent resurveys, or if the proper name is "Tract ," an area of non-public land should be designated as a parcel, not as a lot or tract, when a special designation is necessary for identification. To distinguish among several parcels, they may be called "Parcel A," "Parcel B," and so on." (BLM 7-7)



GOVERNMENT PARCEL IDENTIFYING TEXT

A letter of the alphabet is used to distinguish the various Government Parcels which may lie within a Section.



GOVERNMENT PARCEL DUPLICATE STATUS FLAG

This is an indicator for duplicate Government Parcels. If a Government Parcel has the same letter as another Government Parcel in the same section, then it is a duplicate.





PLSS PROTRACTED BLOCK (FGDC PLSS Township First Division)

A Protracted Block is a designation for sections of uncertain acreage which lie between the coordinate based interior and the prior surveyed boundaries of record which generally form the exterior perimeters of the protracted areas. (BLM IM 93-353, 9/30/93). Protracted Blocks are created when BLM Protraction Diagrams abut previously surveyed Townships. A Protraction Diagram is prepared for the purpose of describing unsurveyed land areas. The diagram is approved for the Director by the Chief, Division of Cadastral Survey, and filed in the respective state offices of the BLM after public notice in the Federal Register.





PROTRACTED BLOCK NUMBER

An integer identifying the Protracted Block. Protracted Blocks within a township are numbered beginning with 37 or the next highest unused numerical designation to avoid confusion with section numbers.





PLSS SECTION (FGDC PLSS Township First Division)

The unit of subdivision of a township with boundaries conforming to the rectangular system of surveys, nominally one mile square, containing 640 acres.





PLS SECTION NUMBER

An integer identifying the Section. Sections are generally numbered from 1 to 36, though in unusual circumstances Sections may have a larger identifying number.





PLSS SECTION SUBDIVISION (FGDC PLSS Township Second Subdivision)

This is the first subdivisions of a PLSS Section. It may be an Aliquot Part, a Government Lot, or a Government Parcel.





PLSS TOWNSHIP (FGDC PLSS Township)

The Public Land Survey System follows the pattern of Townships and Ranges established by the federal government in 1785 and its successors. Public Land Survey System Surveys were originally begun in 1785 on public domain lands and the rules for its use were defined by the authority of the U.S. Government.



In the Public Land Survey System a Township refers to a unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side, usually containing 36 sections, some of which are designed to correct for the convergence of meridians or range lines, with boundaries conforming to meridians and parallels within established limits.



PLSS TOWNSHIP WHOLE NUMBER

The Township Number indicates the number of rows of townships, north or south from a Public Land Survey System Origin.



PLSS TOWNSHIP FRACTION

Township Fractions are created when there are gaps between surveyed Township boundaries or due to excess size in Townships that arose from executing original surveys.

CODES:

No Fraction

1/4 Township

Township

3/4 Township



PLSS TOWNSHIP DIRECTION

The direction of a row of Townships from a Public Land Survey System Origin.

CODES:

North

South



PLSS RANGE WHOLE NUMBER

The Range Number indicates the number of columns of townships, east or west from a Public Land Survey System Origin.



PLSS RANGE FRACTION

Range Fractions are created when there are gaps between surveyed Township boundaries or due to excess size in Townships that arose from executing original surveys.

CODES:

No Fraction

1/4 Range

Range

3/4 Range



PLSS RANGE DIRECTION

The direction of a column of townships from a Public Land Survey System Origin.

CODES:

East

West



PLSS TOWNSHIP DUPLICATE STATUS FLAG

This is an indicator for duplicate Townships. If a Township has the same Township and Range numbers and fractions as another Township with the same Meridian, then it is a duplicate.







PLSS TOWNSHIP MERIDIAN

A north-south reference line. A meridian of often a great circle through the geographical poles of the earth, but may be an assumed line chosen as a matter of convenience. In the Public Land Survey System of the United States a meridian is a specially surveyed north-south line used as a reference for the numbering of townships and ranges within a public land survey area.



MERIDIAN TYPE

The Origin of Public Land Survey System is a reference for the numbering of townships and ranges within a public land survey area.



1 Base Line of the U.S. Military Survey

2 Black Hills Meridian

3 Boise Meridian

4 Chickasaw Meridian

5 Choctaw Meridian

6 Cimarron Meridian

7 Copper River Meridian

8 Extended Fourth Principal Meridian

9 Fairbanks Meridian

10 Fifth Principal Meridian

11 First Principal Meridian

12 Fourth Principal Meridian

13 Gila and Salt River Meridian

14 Great Miami River

15 Humboldt Meridian

16 Huntsville Meridian

17 Indian Meridian

18 Kateel River Meridian

19 Louisiana Meridian

20 New Mexico Principal Meridian

21 Michigan Meridian

22 Mount Diablo Meridian

23 Muskingum River

24 Navajo Meridian

25 Ohio River

26 Principal Meridian

27 Ohio Company Purchase

28 St. Helena Meridian

29 St. Stephens Meridian

30 Salt Lake Meridian

31 San Bernardino Meridian

32 Second Principal Meridian

33 Seward Meridian, Scioto River

34 Sixth Principal Meridian

35 Tallahassee Meridian

36 Third Principal Meridian

37 Twelve Mile Square Reserve

38 Uintah Meridian

39 Umiat Meridian

40 Ute Meridian

41 Washington Meridian

42 Willamette Meridian

43 Wind River Meridian



PLSS TOWNSHIP SUBDIVISION (FGDC PLSS Township First Subdivision)

The primary subdivision of a PLSS Township. It may be a PLSS Section Area, a Donation Land Claim, a PLSS Tract, or a Protracted Block.





PLSS Township Subdivision Duplicate Status Flag

This is an indicator for duplicate Partial Township Areas. If a Partial Township Area has the same number or name as another Partial Township Area in the same township, then it is a duplicate.





PLSS TRACT (FGDC PLSS Township First Division)

A Tract is a federal unit of a township subdivision as described in the BLM Manual of Surveying Instructions.

"Special surveys may involve areas of land that are not aliquot parts of sections but are designated as lots or tracts. In common usage the term "tract" is applied to an expanse of land of no particular size, often irregular in form. In modern public land surveys the term is used specifically to mean a parcel of land that lies in more than one section or that cannot be identified in whole as a part of a particular section. It is properly described by tract number and township. Tracts within a township are numbered beginning with 37 or the next highest unused numerical designation to avoid confusion with section numbers." (BLM 7-5)



TRACT NUMBER

An integer identifying the tract. Tracts within a township are numbered beginning with 37 or the next highest unused numerical designation to avoid confusion with section numbers.





SIGNIFICANT COORDINATED LOCATION



A Significant Coordinated Location is a point that is important for cadastral investigations but is not a Corner Point or a Geodetic Control Point. An example would be a point on a vegetation line, or a point on a fence line. This is a place to store the locations of features and objects which have cadastral significance.



Significant Coordinated Location Name

This is the name, if any, of a Significant Coordinated Location, for example, "Union Wharf."



Significant Coordinated Location Description

This the description of a Significant Coordinated Location, for example, "vegetation line."

SPIRAL CURVE (FGDC Other Curve)

A spiral curve is a variable radius curve used to provide a transition from a straight alignment to a circular alignment, the reverse, or between two circular curves of different radius. This is also called a transition, taper, or easement curve. Various specific definitions for a spiral have been used in the past, such as the ten-chord spiral (also called the American Railway Association Spiral), the Searles spiral and the cubic spiral. The Euler or Clothoid Spiral is the most commonly adopted spiral and in practice provides substantially the same curve on the ground as the other spirals. The Euler Spiral will be used exclusively in this data base.

The Euler Spiral is a spiral along which the degree of curvature at any point is proportional directly to the distance the point is from the point of zero curvature. In alignment design and surveying it is the spiral curve which has a radius of infinite length where the spiral begins and a radius, RC, which is equal to the radius of the circular curve where it joins the curve; the degree of curve is the same for both curves at that point. At any intermediate point on the spiral the degree of curve of the spiral equals the degree of the circular curve it joins, multiplied by the distance the point is from the beginning of the spiral divided by the length, LS, of the spiral. Also the radius of the spiral at any point is the radius, RC, of the circular curve multiplied by the length of spiral, LS, divided by the distance the point of concern on the spiral is from its point of zero curvature.



The degree of curve of a curve is perfectly defined by its radius. There are two definitions: 1) (chord) The angle subtended at the center of a circle by a chord of 100 feet. 2) (arc) The angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc of 100 feet. Definition 1) was used in railroad and early highway design. Definition 2) is used in present day engineering of highway design.





SPIRAL CURVE INITIAL DEGREE OF CURVATURE

The degree of curvature of the spiral at its beginning. If the spiral begins at the end of a straight line, a tangent, then its initial degree of curvature will normally be zero. If it begins at the end of a circular curve, then its initial degree of curvature will normally be that of the circular curve.



SPIRAL CURVE FINAL DEGREE OF CURVATURE

The degree of curvature of the spiral at its end. If the spiral end at the beginning of a straight line, a tangent, then its final degree of curvature will normally be zero. If it ends at the beginning of a circular curve, then its final degree of curvature will normally be that of the circular curve.



SPIRAL CURVE CHANGE IN DEGREE OF CURVATURE

The rate of change of the degree of curvature of a spiral is 100 times the total change in degree of curvature divided by the length of the spiral in feet, i.e. the change in degree of curvature per 100 feet.. I f the degree of curvature is increasing then the degree of curvature is a positive number. If the degree of curvature is decreasing then the rate of change is negative.







STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM NAD 27 ZONE

NAD 27 State Plane Zones are one of the plane rectangular systems in the United States established for use in defining geodetic locations in terms of plane-rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Each State is mapped by a conformal map projection in one or more zones, over each of which is placed a rectangular grid. Zones of limited east-west extent and indefinite north-south extent are mapped by a transverse Mercator map projection; zones of indefinite east-west extent and limited north-south extent are mapped by the Lambert conformal conic map projection with two standard parallels. Zone One of Alaska is on the oblique Mercator map projection. The use of the projections assures that, for zones having a width of 250 kilometers, the greatest departure from exact scale (scale error) is 1 part in 10,000.



NAD 27 State Plane Zones are projections of the North American Datum of 1927 which is the horizontal control datum that is defined by the following location and azimuth on the Clark spheroid of 1866, with origin at Meades Ranch:

longitude 98 32' 30.506" W

latitude 39 13' 26.686" N

azimuth from Meades Ranch to Waldo

75 28' 09.64"

Geodetic positions on the North American Datum of 1927 were derived from the above location and azimuth through a readjustment of the triangulation of the entire network in which Laplace azimuths were introduced, and the Bowie method was used.







TM - Transverse Mercator Projection

OM - Oblique Mercator Projection

L - Lambert Conformal Conic Projection



FIPS

CODE DESCRIPTION PROJECTION

0101 ALABAMA EAST TM

0102 ALABAMA WEST TM

5001 ALASKA 1 OM

5002 ALASKA 2 TM

5003 ALASKA 3 TM

5004 ALASKA 4 TM

5005 ALASKA 5 TM

5006 ALASKA 6 TM

5007 ALASKA 7 TM

5008 ALASKA 8 TM

5009 ALASKA 9 TM

5010 ALASKA 10 L

0201 ARIZONA EAST TM

0202 ARIZONA CENTRAL TM

0203 ARIZONA WEST TM

0301 ARKANSAS NORTH L

0302 ARKANSAS SOUTH L

0401 CALIFORNIA I L

0402 CALIFORNIA II L

0403 CALIFORNIA III L

0404 CALIFORNIA IV L

0405 CALIFORNIA V L

0406 CALIFORNIA VI L

0407 CALIFORNIA VII L

0501 COLORADO NORTH L

0502 COLORADO CNTRL L

0503 COLORADO SOUTH L

0600 CONNECTICUT L

0700 DELAWARE ALL TM

0901 FLORIDA EAST TM

0903 FLORIDA NORTH L

0902 FLORIDA WEST TM

1001 GEORGIA EAST TM

1002 GEORGIA WEST TM

5101 HAWAII 1 TM

5102 HAWAII 2 TM

5103 HAWAII 3 TM

5104 HAWAII 4 TM

5105 HAWAII 5 TM

1101 IDAHO EAST TM

1102 IDAHO CENTRAL TM

1103 IDAHO WEST TM

1201 ILLINOIS EAST TM

1202 ILLINOIS WEST TM

1301 INDIANA EAST TM

1302 INDIANA WEST TM

1401 IOWA NORTH L

1402 IOWA SOUTH L

1501 KANSAS NORTH L

1502 KANSAS SOUTH L

1601 KENTUCKY NORTH L

1602 KENTUCKY SOUTH L

1701 LOUISIANA NO L

1702 LOUISIANA SO L

1703 LOUISIANA OFFS L

1801 MAINE EAST TM

1802 MAINE WEST TM

1900 MARYLAND ALL L

2001 MASS. MAINLAND L

2002 MASS. ISLAND L

2101 MICHIGAN EAST TM

2102 MICHIGAN CENTRAL TM

2103 MICHIGAN WEST TM

2111 MICHIGAN NO. L

2112 MICHIGAN CEN. L

2113 MICHIGAN SO. L

2201 MINNESOTA NO. L

2202 MINNESOTA CEN. L

2203 MINNESOTA SO. L

2301 MISSISSIPPI EAST TM

2302 MISSISSIPPI WEST TM

2401 MISSOURI EAST TM

2402 MISSOURI CENTRAL TM

2403 MISSOURI WEST TM

2501 MONTANA NO. L

2502 MONTANA CEN. L

2503 MONTANA SO. L

2601 NEBRASKA NORTH L

2602 NEBRASKA SOUTH L

2701 NEVADA EAST TM

2702 NEVADA CENTRAL TM

2703 NEVADA WEST TM

2800 NEW HAMPSHIRE AL TM

2900 NEW JERSEY TM

3001 NEW MEXICO EAST TM

3002 NEW MEXICO CENTRAL TM

3003 NEW MEXICO WEST TM

3101 NEW YORK EAST TM

3102 NEW YORK CENTRAL TM

3103 NEW YORK WEST TM

3104 NY LONG ISLD L

3200 N CAROLINA L

3301 N DAKOTA NORTH L

3302 N DAKOTA SOUTH L

3401 OHIO NORTH L

3402 OHIO SOUTH L

3501 OKLA NORTH L

3502 OKLA SOUTH L

3601 OREGON NO L

3602 OREGON SO L

3701 PENN. NORTH L

3702 PENN. SOUTH L

3800 RHODE ISLAND ALL TM

3901 S CAROLINA NORTH L

3902 S CAROLINA SOUTH L

4001 S DAKOTA NORTH L

4002 S DAKOTA SOUTH L

4100 TENNESSEE ALL L

4201 TEXAS NORTH L

4202 TEXAS NORTH CNTRL L

4203 TEXAS CENTRAL L

4204 TEXAS SOUTH CNTRL L

4205 TEXAS SOUTH L

4301 UTAH NORTH L

4302 UTAH CNTRL L

4303 UTAH SOUTH L

4400 VERMONT ALL TM

4501 VIRGINIA NO L

4502 VIRGINIA SO L

4601 WASHINGTON NO L

4602 WASHINGTON SO L

4701 W VIRGINIA NO L

4702 W VIRGINIA SO L

4801 WISCONSIN NO L

4802 WISCONSIN CE L

4803 WISCONSIN SO L

4901 WYOMING EAST TM

4902 WYOMING EAST CENTRAL TM

4903 WYOMING WEST CENTRAL TM

4904 WYOMING WEST TM

5201 PUERTO RICO/VI L

5202 ST. CROIX L



STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM NAD 83 ZONE

NAD 83 State Plane Zones are one of the plane rectangular systems in the United States established for use in defining geodetic locations in terms of plane-rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Each State is mapped by a conformal map projection in one or more zones, over each of which is placed a rectangular grid. Zones of limited east-west extent and indefinite north-south extent are mapped by a transverse Mercator map projection; zones of indefinite east-west extent and limited north-south extent are mapped by the Lambert conformal conic map projection with two standard parallels. Zone One of Alaska is on the oblique Mercator map projection. The use of the projections assures that, for zones having a width of 250 kilometers, the greatest departure from exact scale (scale error) is 1 part in 10,000.



NAD 83 State Plane Zones are projections of the North American Datum of 1983 which is the horizontal control datum for the United States, Canada, Mexico and Central America, based on a geocentric origin and the Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS 80) ellipsoid.





TM - Transverse Mercator Projection

OM - Oblique Mercator Projection

L - Lambert Conformal Conic Projection



FIPS

CODE DESCRIPTION PROJECTION

0101 ALABAMA EAST TM

0102 ALABAMA WEST TM

5001 ALASKA 1 OM

5002 ALASKA 2 TM

5003 ALASKA 3 TM

5004 ALASKA 4 TM

5005 ALASKA 5 TM

5006 ALASKA 6 TM

5007 ALASKA 7 TM

5008 ALASKA 8 TM

5009 ALASKA 9 TM

5010 ALASKA 10 L

0201 ARIZONA EAST TM

0202 ARIZONA CENTRAL TM

0203 ARIZONA WEST TM

0301 ARKANSAS NORTH L

0302 ARKANSAS SOUTH L

0401 CALIFORNIA 1 L

0402 CALIFORNIA 2 L

0403 CALIFORNIA 3 L

0404 CALIFORNIA 4 L

0405 CALIFORNIA 5 L

0406 CALIFORNIA 6 L

0501 COLORADO NORTH L

0502 COLORADO CNTRL L

0503 COLORADO SOUTH L

0600 CONNECTICUT L

0700 DELAWARE TM

0901 FLORIDA EAST TM

0902 FLORIDA WEST TM

0903 FLORIDA NORTH L

1001 GEORGIA EAST TM

1002 GEORGIA WEST TM

5101 HAWAII 1 TM

5102 HAWAII 2 TM

5103 HAWAII 3 TM

5104 HAWAII 4 TM

5105 HAWAII 5 TM

1101 IDAHO EAST TM

1102 IDAHO CENTRAL TM

1103 IDAHO WEST TM

1201 ILLINOIS EAST TM

1202 ILLINOIS WEST TM

1301 INDIANA EAST TM

1302 INDIANA WEST TM

1401 IOWA NORTH L

1402 IOWA SOUTH L

1501 KANSAS NORTH L

1502 KANSAS SOUTH L

1601 KENTUCKY NORTH L

1602 KENTUCKY SOUTH L

1701 LOUISIANA NO L

1702 LOUISIANA SO L

1703 LOUISIANA OFFS L

1801 MAINE EAST TM

1802 MAINE WEST TM

1900 MARYLAND ALL L

2001 MASS. MAINLAND L

2002 MASS. ISLAND L

2111 MICHIGAN NO. L

2112 MICHIGAN CEN. L

2113 MICHIGAN SO. L

2201 MINNESOTA NO. L

2202 MINNESOTA CEN. L

2203 MINNESOTA SO. L

2301 MISSISSIPPI EAST TM

2302 MISSISSIPPI WEST TM

2401 MISSOURI EAST TM

2402 MISSOURI CENTRAL TM

2403 MISSOURI WEST TM

2500 MONTANA L

2600 NEBRASKA L

2701 NEVADA EAST TM

2702 NEVADA CENTRAL TM

2703 NEVADA WEST TM

2800 NEW HAMPSHIRE TM

2900 NEW JERSEY TM

3001 NEW MEXICO EAST TM

3002 NEW MEXICO CENTRAL TM

3003 NEW MEXICO WEST TM

3101 NEW YORK EAST TM

3102 NEW YORK CENTRAL TM

3103 NEW YORK WEST TM

3104 NY LONG ISLD L

3200 N CAROLINA L

3301 N DAKOTA NORTH L

3302 N DAKOTA SOUTH L

3401 OHIO NORTH L

3402 OHIO SOUTH L

3501 OKLA NORTH L

3502 OKLA SOUTH L

3601 OREGON NO L

3602 OREGON SO L

3701 PENN. NORTH L

3702 PENN. SOUTH L

3800 RHODE ISLAND TM

3900 S CAROLINA L

4001 S DAKOTA NORTH L

4002 S DAKOTA SOUTH L

4100 TENNESSEE L

4201 TEXAS NORTH L

4202 TEXAS NORTH CNTRL L

4203 TEXAS CENTRAL L

4204 TEXAS SOUTH CNTRL L

4205 TEXAS SOUTH L

4301 UTAH NORTH L

4302 UTAH CNTRL L

4303 UTAH SOUTH L

4400 VERMONT TM

4501 VIRGINIA NO L

4502 VIRGINIA SO L

4601 WASHINGTON NO L

4602 WASHINGTON SO L

4701 W VIRGINIA NO L

4702 W VIRGINIA SO L

4801 WISCONSIN NO L

4802 WISCONSIN CE L

4803 WISCONSIN SO L

4901 WYOMING EAST TM

4902 WYOMING EAST CENTRAL TM

4903 WYOMING WEST CENTRAL TM

4904 WYOMING WEST TM

5200 PR/VI/ST. CROIX L



STRAIGHT LINE (FGDC Straight Line)

A straight line is the path of a moving point having length but no breadth and having the same direction throughout its length.



STRAIGHT LINE DIRECTION

The direction of a line is the angle between the line and an arbitrary chosen reference line. When the reference line is north or south and the angle is designated east or west, the direction is called the bearing. When the reference line is north or south and the angle is clockwise, the direction is called the azimuth.





SURVEY DOCUMENT



SURVEY DOCUMENT TYPE



Field notes

These are the field notes from survey crews conducting any sort of survey, except those of the General Land Office and Bureau of Land Management, ranging from the notes of State Registered Surveyors to those of timber cruisers.



GLO/BLM Field Notes

The official field notes resulting in an approved survey plat by either the General Land Office or the Bureau of Land Management.



GLO/BLM Plat

The drawing which represents the particular area included in a survey by the General Land Office or the Bureau of Land Management, such as a township, private land claim or mineral claim, and the lines surveyed, established, retraced or resurveyed, showing the direction and length of each such line; the relation to the adjoining official surveys; the boundaries, descriptions, and area of each parcel of land subdivided; and, as nearly as may be practicable, a representation of the relief and improvements within the limits of the survey.



Index

A list describing other survey documents and where they can be found.



Miscellaneous Surveyor's Records

This includes calculations, coordinate lists, sheets from job folders, and computer files.



Recovery Document

A document recording information about the recovery of a corner point. A recovery document may or may not be recorded by a state or county.



Survey Plat

A diagram drawn to scale showing all essential data pertaining to the boundaries and subdivisions of a tract of land, as determined by survey. A plat should show all data required for a complete and accurate description of the land which it delineates, including the bearings (or azimuths) and lengths of the boundaries of each subdivision. A plat may constitute a legal description of the land and be used in lieu of a written description. A plat may or may not be recorded by a state or county.









SURVEY MONUMENT (subset of FGDC Corner Point)

A monument is a physical structure which marks the location of a corner or other survey point. In public-land surveys, the term "corner" is employed to denote a point determined by the surveying process, whereas the "monument" is the physical structure erected to mark the corner point upon the earth's surface. Monument and corner are not synonymous, though the two terms are often used in the same sense.



MONUMENT SET DATE

The date on which the monument was erected.



MONUMENT STAMPING

The stamping field should contain the exact stamping as it appears on the survey monument. The entry must not exceed 50 characters. If there is no stamping, make no entry here; however, if the marker is a type that is normally stamped, enter a short note about its being unstamped in the accompanying descriptive text.



MONUMENT ACCESS

Every effort must be made to provide enough information for easy recovery of the point. A well written description should contain the following access information:

(1) one or more references to some well known, readily available, location in terms of distances and directions. Intersections of prominent highways, landmarks, and public buildings in nearby towns are examples of such locations. In some cases, this location will require some description;

(2) detailed directions concerning how one would proceed to the mark site from one or more of these prominent locations;

When distance estimates or measurements are given in metric units, English equivalencies must follow in parentheses. Property ownership and contact point telephone numbers are desirable when private property must be crossed or occupied.



MONUMENT ACCESSORIES

Every effort must be made to provide enough information for easy recovery of the point. A well written description should contain the following accessory information:

(1) distance and direction to, inscription, and designation of any monumented reference marks;

(2) distance and direction from one or more reference objects in the immediate locale should be noted. Examples of these reference objects are the centerlines of roads, fire plugs, telephone poles, chiseled marks in pavement, and survey marks which are not included in the NGS data base.

(3) distance and direction to any witness post that was set or if any witness post was set;

(4) if applicable, a vertical reference to some nearby object (or the ground) stating the relationship to the object should be recorded. Distance above, below, or about flush with the object should be noted; and

When distance estimates or measurements are given in metric units, English equivalencies must follow in parentheses.



MONUMENT DESCRIPTION

Every effort must be made to provide enough information for easy recovery of the point. A well written description should describe the monument including any information about the specific setting or exact location of the mark if the coded values are not sufficient to describe it completely.

SURVEY MONUMENT SETTING

This code describes the physical environment in which the monument lies.



01 - unspecified shallow

02 - driven into the ground

03 - imbedded in the ground

04 - surrounded by a mass of concrete

05 - set into the top of an irregular mass of concrete

07 - set into the top of a round concrete monument

08 - set into the top of a square concrete monument

09 - set into the top of a prefabricated concrete post imbedded in the ground

10 - set into the top of a prefabricated concrete post surrounded by a mass of concrete

11 - set into the top of a prefabricated concrete post imbedded in a mass of concrete

12 - set into a prefabricated concrete block imbedded in the ground

13 - set into a prefabricated concrete block surrounded by a mass of concrete

14 - set into a prefabricated concrete block imbedded in a mass of concrete

15 - a metal rod driven into the ground

16 - a metal rod with base plate buried/screwed into the ground

17 - set into the top of a metal pipe driven into the ground

18 - set into the top of a metal pipe imbedded in the ground

19 - set into the top of a metal pipe surrounded by a mass of concrete

20 - set into the top of a metal pipe imbedded in a mass of concrete

21 - set in concrete at the center of a clay tile pipe fastened to a wooden pile driven into marsh

22 - set in concrete at the center of a clay tile pipe imbedded in the ground

23 - set in concrete at the center of a clay tile pipe surrounded by a mass of concrete

24 - set in concrete at the center of a clay tile pipe imbedded in a mass of concrete

30 - light structures (other than listed below)

31 - pavements (street, sidewalk, curb, apron, etc.)

32 - retaining walls, etc.= concrete ledge

33 - piles and poles (e.g. spike in utility pole)

34 - footings/foundation walls of small/medium structures

35 - mat foundations, etc. = concrete slab

36 - massive structures (other than listed below)

37 - massive retaining walls

38 - abutments and piers of large bridges

39 - tunnels

40 - massive structures with deep foundations

41 - large structures with foundations on bedrock

45 - unspecified depth

46 - copper-clad steel rod

47 - galvanized steel pipe

48 - galvanized steel rod

49 - stainless steel rod

50 - aluminum alloy rod

55 - unspecified pipe/rod in sleeve

56 - copper-clad steel rod in sleeve

57 - galvanized steel pipe in sleeve

58 - galvanized steel rod in sleeve

59 - stainless steel rod in sleeve

60 - aluminum alloy rod in sleeve

65 - unspecified rock

66 - in rock outcrop

67 - set into a drill hole in rock outcrop

68 - set into a drill hole in rock outcrop and marked by a chiseled cross

69 - set into a drill hole in rock outcrop and marked by a chiseled triangle

70 - set into a drill hole in rock outcrop and marked by a chiseled circle

71 - set into a drill hole in rock outcrop and marked by a chiseled square

73 - in a rock ledge

74 - set into a drill hole in a rock ledge

75 - set into a drill hole in a rock ledge at the intersection of two chiseled lines

76 - set into a drill hole in a rock ledge and marked by a chiseled triangle

77 - set into a drill hole in a rock ledge and marked by a chiseled circle

78 - set into a drill hole in a rock ledge and marked by a chiseled square

80 - in a boulder

81 - set into a drill hole in a boulder

82 - set into a drill hole in a boulder and marked by a chiseled cross

83 - set into a drill hole in a boulder and marked by a chiseled triangle

84 - set into a drill hole in a boulder and marked by a chiseled circle

85 - set into a drill hole in a boulder and marked by a chiseled square

87 - in a partially exposed boulder

88 - set into a drill hole in a partially exposed boulder

89 - set into a drill hole in a partially exposed boulder and marked by a chiseled cross

90 - set into a drill hole in a partially exposed boulder and marked by a chiseled triangle

91 - set into a drill hole in a partially exposed boulder and marked by a chiseled circle

92 - set into a drill hole in a partially exposed boulder and marked by a chiseled square

93 - in bedrock

94 - set in a drill hole in bedrock

95 - set into a mass of concrete in a depression in rock outcrop

96 - set into a mass of concrete in a depression in a rock ledge

97 - set into a mass of concrete in a depression in a boulder

98 - set into a mass of concrete in a depression in a partially exposed boulder

99 - set into a mass of concrete in a depression in the bedrock







SURVEY MONUMENT RECOVERY

This entity captures details of the recovery of a Survey Monument at a date subsequent to its establishment.



RECOVERY DATE

The date of the Monument Recovery.



RECOVERY CONDITION

This provides a text field to describe in detail the changes in the monument condition, monument surroundings, and access to the monument.





SURVEY MONUMENT RECOVERY CONDITION

The Survey Monument Current Condition Code captures the condition of the monument at the time of recovery.



Good

Not Recovered, Not Found

Poor, Disturbed, Mutilated, Requires Maintenance

Destroyed (See Note Below)



Note: The control point should be reported as destroyed only when the actual marker is found separated from its setting (e.g., disk recovered from highway department personnel). If the marker was not found, notes concerning evidence of possible destruction should be entered as text records, but the recovery condition entry should be coded as "2".





RECOVERY TYPE LABEL NM ??????







SURVEY MONUMENT TYPE

The Monument Type describes the material, composition, and other characteristics of the physical corner marker, if present.



CODES: While monuments may be capable of being characterized in several ways, it is expected that the user will chose the most appropriate code for the monument. For example, an aluminum post with and aluminum cap should be coded as and Aluminum Cap, but an aluminum pipe in the ground should be coded as and Aluminum Marker.

1 Other

2 Aluminum Cap

3 Aluminum Marker

4 Astro Pier

5 Axle

6 Azimuth Mark Disk

7 Base Line Pier Disk

8 Bench Mark Disk

9 Bolt

10 Boundary Marker Disk

11 Brass Cap

12 Calibration Base Line Disk

13 Cap-and-bolt

14 Chiseled Circle

15 Chiseled Cross

16 Chiseled Square

17 Chiseled Triangle

18 Clay Tile Pipe

19 Concrete Post

20 Disk

21 Drill Hole

22 Earthenware Pot

23 Fence Post

24 Flange-encased Rod

25 Glass Bottle

26 Gravity Reference Mark Disk

27 Gravity Plug

28 Gravity Station Disk

29 Horizontal Control Disk

30 Iron Pipe

31 Iron Post

32 Magnetic Station Disk

33 Marked Stone

34 Metal Rod

35 Nail

36 Nos Hydrographic Survey Disk

37 Pipe Cap

38 Pk Nail

39 Rebar

40 Reference Mark Disk

41 Rivet

42 Rock

43 Rock Cairn

44 Spike

45 Steel Pin

46 Stone Monument

47 Survey Disk

48 Tidal Station Disk

49 Topographic Station Disk

50 Traverse Station Disk

51 Tree

52 Triangulation Station Disk

53 Water Cap

54 Wooden Hub

55 Wooden Stake

56 Vertical Control Disk









VERTICAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT

Vertical Coordinates are a numbers designating the location of a point above or below a 2-dimensional space, whether that space is a plane or the surface of a spheroid. Coordinates are almost always associated with coordinate systems.



Vertical Coordinate

The vertical distance from a datum to the Point. A vertical datum is any level surface (as for example, mean sea level) taken as a surface of reference from which to reckon elevations. The datum used is specified by the Vertical Datum Type Code. The unit is specified by the Distance Unit.



Vertical Coordinate Accept Flag

Set the flag if the vertical component of the Measured Coordinate is accepted by the database as the best representation of the position of the point. If the flag is set, then the vertical component of the Measured Coordinate will be converted to NAVD 88 elevation with the units being meters for purpose of populating the elevation attribute of the Coordinated Point.





VERTICAL COORDINATE MEASURED ACCURACY LEVEL

The Vertical Accuracy indicates the 95% confidence accuracy range for the vertical component of the coordinate, the Elevation. For example, for coordinates with a 1-meter accuracy range, 95% of them will have a true value within 1-meter of the measured value.



1 1-Millimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.001 meters.

2 2-Millimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.002 meters.

3 5-Millimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.005 meters.

4 1-Centimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.010 meters.

5 2-Centimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.020 meters.

6 5-Centimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.050 meters.

7 1-Decimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.100 meters.

8 2-Decimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.200 meters.

9 5-Decimeter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 0.500 meters.

10 1-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 1.000 meters.

11 2-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 2.000 meters.

12 5-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 5.000 meters.

13 10-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 10.000 meters.

14 20-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 20.000 meters.

15 50-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 50.000 meters.

16 100-Meter. 95-percent confidence value less than or equal to 100.000 meters.

17 >100-Meter. 95-percent confidence value greater than 100.000 meters.









VERTICAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT DATUM

This code specifies the vertical datum used to define the elevation. A vertical datum is any level surface (as for example, mean sea level) taken as a surface of reference from which to reckon elevations. Although a level surface is not a plane, the vertical datum is frequently referred to as the datum plane. Also called datum level, reference level, reference plane, vertical-control datum.



NGVD29.

National Geodetic Datum of 1929. A fixed reference adopted as a standard geodetic datum for elevations determined by leveling. Mean sea level was held fixed as observed at 21 tide stations in the United States and 5 in Canada. The geodetic datum is fixed and does not take into account the changing stands of sea level. Because there are many variables affecting sea level, and because the geodetic datum represents a best fit over a broad area, the relationship between the geodetic datum and local mean sea level is not consistent from one location to another either in time or space. For this reason, the National Geodetic Vertical Datum should not be confused with mean sea level.



NAVD88.

North American Vertical Datum of 1988. A fixed reference adopted as a standard geodetic datum for elevations determined by leveling. The NAVD 88 datum was realized by a single datum point, Father Point/Rimouski, in Quebec, Canada. Only one point of coincidence with mean sea level was employed so that the datum would be a true equipotential surface, a surface over which gravity is constant. It is well known that local mean sea levels at different sites do not lie on the same equipotential surface and that the holding of 26 different mean seal level datum points by NGVD29 created an irregular datum.



Tidal.

A tidal datum is defined by a certain phase of the tide. Tidal datums are local datums and should not be extended into areas which have differing hydrographic characteristics without substantiating measurements. In order that they may be recovered when needed, such datums are referenced to fixed points known as bench marks. The primary determination of a tidal datum is based directly on the average of observations over a 19-year period. For a tidal datum, zero elevation is the level of mean lower low water.



Ellipsoidal.

An ellipsoid is the three-dimensional mathematical figure formed by rotating an ellipse around its minor axis. The earth's minor axis is the polar axis and its semimajor axis is the equatorial radius. Many ellipsoids have been used as geodetic frameworks for horizontal positioning. Two ellipsoids have been used as a framework for elevations, the GRS80 ellipsoid and its near twin, the WGS84 ellipsoid. There is no significant difference between the two. The GRS80 ellipsoid is used for the North American Datum of 1983 and the WGS84 ellipsoid is used by the United States Department of Defense for the WGS84 datum which is the native datum of the Global Positioning System. An ellipsoidal height is the distance measured along the normal to the ellipsoid, between a point and the surface of the ellipsoid. In the State of Washington the WGS84 ellipsoid is around 20 meters above mean sea level and ellipsoidal heights are about 20 meters smaller than orthometric heights for the same point. The GRS80 ellipsoid does not form an equipotential gravity surface.



Project or Local.

A local datum arrived at by holding an arbitrary elevation at a particular point. Project or local datums have often been employed by dams and cities for convenience.